TEST #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TEST #4 Deck (108):
1

disuse atrophy

not using the muscle ; muscle shrinks

2

denervation atrophy

nothing to stimulate the muscle nerve; no stimulus

3

loss of movement

paralysis

4

1 limb is paralyzed

monoplegia

5

half of the body is paralyzed

hemiplagia

6

all four extremities are paralyzed

tetraplegia

7

waist down of the body is paralyzed

paraplegia

8

Normal size of the muscle
Assessed while muscle is at rest and during passive stretching

muscle bulk

9

(increase in muscle bulk with a proportionate increase in strength)

hypertrophy

10

increase in bulk without an increase strength

pseudohypertrophy

11

increase in bulk without an increase strength

pseudohypertrophy

12

what happens to the muscles in duchennes muscular dystrophy

pseudohypertrophy

13

normal state of muscle tension

muscle tone

14

decrease in muscle tension; loss of tone

hypotonia

15

muscle is very limp and soft

flaccid

16

increase in muscle tension; above the normal tone; increase in muscle tone but lack of flexibility

hypertonia

17

firmly fixed; stiff

rigidity

18

cog wheel effect; stop and go effect

lead pipe rigidity

19

Visible squirming and twitching movements of muscle fibers ~flickering under the skin

fasciculation

20

spinal reflex activity
hyperactive reflexes where

upper motor neurons

21

involuntary Rhythmic contraction altered with relaxation caused by sudden stretching a muscle and maintaining it in a stretched position

clonus

22

spinal reflex activity
hypoactive/ areflexia

lower motor neurons

23

system for position sense.

sensory system

24

system for position sense.

sensory system

25

for posture and balance

vestibular system

26

rhythmic movement and steady posture

cerebellar system

27

for muscle strength

motor system

28

coordination of four areas of the nervous system

sensory, vestibular, cerebellar, and motor system

29

the failure to accurately perform rapid alternating movements.

Dysdiadochokinesia

30

a wide-based, unsteady gait

ataxia

31

inaccuracies of movements leading to a failure to reach a specified target

dysmetria

32

abnormal writhing movements

chorea

33

abnormal simultaneous contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles, leading to abnormal postures

dystonia

34

involuntary jerking movement indicate abnormalities in the basal ganglia, although the exact localization may be difficult to determine.

myoclonus

35

when does disuse atrophy happen

chronic illness or immobilization ; stop this through PROM

36

characterized by progressive degeneration, necrosis of skeletal muscles fibers that control movement.

muscular dystrophy

37

what gives the muscle integrity

dystrophin

38

muscular dystrophy does not have what

dystrophin

39

how is duchennes muscular dystrophy passed

x-linked passed from mom to son

40

what causes duchennes

lack of the protein dystrophin

41

when will a boy expect to be in a wheelchair with duchennes

12 years old

42

1st and 2nd sign of duchennes

gowers
enlarged calf muscles - pseudohypertrophy

43

Genetic defect very similar to that in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but not as severe.

beckers muscular dystrophy

44

where does backers affect

muscles of hips, pelvic area, thighs and shoulders

45

longer life
affects men
some use wheelchair some dont
not as severe
passed from mother to son
lack of dystrophin

beckers muscular dystrophy

46

how to diagnose muscular dystrophy

creatinine kinase CK is a protein released in muscle breakdown. levels are abnormally high but as disease progresses the levels decrease due to loss of muscle

47

provide relief for inflamed areas of the body. They lessen swelling, redness, itching, and allergic reactions.

corticosteroids

48

corticosteroids will do what the blood sugar in muscular dystrophy

increase it and may have to give insulin

49

goal for muscular dystrophy

maintaining ambulation and preventing deformities

50

where is the neuro muscular junction

synapse between the motor neuron and the neuromuscular fiber

51

what is people lacking with neuromuscular junction disease

ACh; causes muscle contraction

52

what breaks down ACh

Achesterase which allows for muscle contraction

53

acts on the postjunctional membrane of the motor endplate to prevent the depolarizing effect of the neurotransmitter.

curare

54

produce paralysis by blocking acetylcholine release.

Clostridium botulinum

55

inhibit the action of acetylcholinesterase and allow acetylcholine released from the motor neuron to accumulate.

Physostigmine and neostigmine

56

Myasthenia Gravis

grave muscular weakness

57

Disorder of the neuromuscular junction that affects impulse transmission between the motor neuron and the innervated muscle cell; loss of ACh receptors

myasthenia gravis

58

who does myasthenia graves affect

women but after 50 years it affects men more

59

usually small cell carcinoma; lung cancer

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

60

first signs of myasthenia gravis

Eye and periorbital muscle ptosis
Diplopia-double vision

61

Respiratory muscle weakness
Chewing
Swallowing
Weakness limbs proximal to distal

myasthenia gravis

62

when are symptoms worse for m. gravis

better in the morning and as day goes on it gets worse

63

what test is given for m. gravis

tensilon test ; facial ptosis will resolve 30 seconds given after if they are positive. only lasts about 5 minutes

64

Rapid worsening of MG can lead to a serious and life-threatening situation
It is characterized by severe weakness of the bulbar (innervated by cranial nerves) and/or respiratory muscles, enough to cause respiratory failure that requires artificial airway or ventilatory support.

Myasthenic Crisis

65

respiratory infections, aspiration, immunosuppressant drugs, corticosteroids can cause

Myasthenic Crisis

66

Dysphagia
Nasal regurgitation
Nasal or staccato speech
Jaw or tongue weakness
Bifacial paresis.
Bulbar muscle weakness

myasthenia crisis

67

beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics

increase myasthenia crisis

68

muscle weakness with or without atrophy and sensory changes

disorders of the PNS

69

the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist

carpal tunnel syndrome

70

Pain front of the wrist
Paresthesia and numbness of the thumb and first, second, third, and half of the fourth digits of the hand;
Pain in the wrist and hand, which worsens at night
Atrophy of the abductor pollicis muscle
Weakness in precision grip.

carpal tunnel

71

carpal tunnel diagnosis

positive phalens maneuver
positive tinels sign

72

an acute onset immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

73

causative factor of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

can follow the influenza vaccine; can be linked to infections

74

Ascending
Symmetrical flaccid paralysis
Paresthesia, numbness often accompany the loss of motor function
postural hypotension
sweating
urinary retention
PAIN

guillain-barre syndrome

75

most common places of pain for g. barre syndrome

shoulder girdle, back, and posterior thighs,

76

most common symptom of herniated discs

pain, sciatica -back of leg and sole of foot

77

Dysfunctional because of trauma, the effects of aging, or degenerative disorders of the spine.

herniated disc

78

controls the movement; important in monitoring movement but is also important in cognitive movements

basal ganglia

79

loss of dopaminergic neurons in the area of the brain known as the Substantia Nigra

parkinson disease

80

cogwheel
bradykinesia
resting tremors
pill rolling
Cognitive-affective symptoms and dementia
Autonomic-neuroendocrine symptoms

parkinson disease

81

Wide-eyed
Frequent drooling
Slow gait
Short, shuffling steps
Flexed and abducted arms
Slightly forward bending trunk

parkinson disease manifestations

82

treatment of parkinson

levodopa

83

within the CNS

upper motor neurons

84

Is a degenerative disorder diffusely involving the lower and upper motor neurons.
Movement is more affected than the brain.

Lou Gehrig disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

85

Limb cramping or weakness
Incoordination
Slurring of speech
Difficulty swallowing
Single muscle group paresis that spreads
Hypotonia
Fasciculations, along with fibrillations

ALS

86

Autoimmune demyelinating disorder characterized by inflammation and selective destruction of CNS myelin.

multiple sclerosis

87

how to know if a person has multiple sclerosis

lhermitte sign -electrical shock sensation down the neck and spine

88

tinnitus
diplopia
dysphagia
bladder problems
weakness in lower extremities

multiple sclerosis

89

cervical vertebrae

1-7

90

throacic vertebrae

1-12

91

lumbar vertebrae

1-5

92

sacral

1-5

93

spinal cord injuries most common years

16-30 years of age

94

causes of spinal cord injury 16-65 and 65 and above

car accidents
falls
gunshots

falls

95

injuries C1-C3 you are

vent dependent

96

spinal cord injury test

bulbocavernous reflex- stimulate the penis, anal, urethra, foley

97

a symptom of a spinal cord injury

spinal shock

98

Everyone who sustains an SCI experiences

some level of spinal shock.

99

4 stages of spinal shock

hyporeflexia-Nerve cells become less responsive result in weakening/lack of reflexes below the injury site.
initial return of reflexes
hyperreflexia-These overactive reflexes may result in twitchy or spastic, uncontrollable movements.
continuation of hyperreflexia-Overactive reflexes persist and may result in spasticity due to changes in the neuronal cell bodies.

100

whats the goal of spinal cord injury

reduce the neurologic deficit and prevent any additional loss of neurological function

101

innervated by segments C3 to C5 through the phrenic nerves.

diaphragm - main muscle ventilation

102

Vagal stimulation that causes a marked bradycardia

vasovagal response

103

represents an acute episode of exaggerated sympathetic reflex responses that occur in persons with injuries at T6 and above, in which CNS control of spinal reflexes is lost

autonomic dysreflexia

104

hypertension
bladder fullness
palor skin
cool and clammy
restrictive clothing
bladder fullness
fecal impaction

autonomic dysreflexia

105

what causes autonomic dysreflexia

bladder distension and constipation

106

usually occurs in persons with injuries at T4 to T6 and above and is related to the interruption of descending control of sympathetic outflow to blood vessels in the extremities and abdomen.

postural hypotension

107

autonomic dysreflexia vasodilation above injury

flushed face, high bp
increase sweating
decrease heart rate
headache

108

autonomic dysreflexia vasoconstriction below injury

pale
cool
not sweating