PRE LECTURE 1-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PRE LECTURE 1-7 Deck (72):
1

endoplasmic reticulum is the control center of the cell

false/ nucleus

2

cells communicate with each other by means of chemical messenger systems

true

3

glycolytic pathway does not require oxygen to produce cellular energy

true

4

active transport across the cell membrane can occur with or without an energy source

false/ needs energy

5

cells with a similar embryonic origin or function are often organized into larger functional units called tissues

true

6

ANSWER tissue is he most abundant tissue type in the body

connective

7

three types of ANSWER tissue exist; skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

muscle

8

literally means "cell eating" and involves the engulfment and subsequent killing or degrading of microorganisms and other particulate matter

phagocytosis

9

serve as a sites of protein synthesis in the cell

rough ER

10

cell metabolism is the process that converts carbs, proteins, and fats in ANSWER

ATP

11

major source of energy for all body cells

ATP

12

cells are able to adapt to changes in work demands or threats to survival by changing their size, number, and type

true

13

apoptotic cell death and necrotic cell death are both pathologic forms of cell death that is unregulated and invariably injurious to the cell organism

false/ necrotic cell death

14

prolonged exposure to cold increases blood viscosity and induces vasoconstrictions

true

15

gas gangrene is a special type of gangrene that results from infection of devitalized tissues by one of several species of clostridium bacteria

true

16

all mechanisms of cell injury (hypoxia, mechanical forces, extremes of temperature, electrical injuries, etc) lead to irreversible cellular damage with cell destruction or death

false

17

decrease in the size of a tissue organ resulting from a decrease in the size of the individual cells or in the number of cells

atrophy

18

involves the abnormal tissue deposition of calcium salts, together with smaller amounts of iron, magnesium, and other minerals in dead or dying tissue

pathologic calcification

19

utilized for programmed cell death or cell suicide

apoptosis

20

refers to cell death in an organ or tissue that is still part of a living person

necrosis

21

represents a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type

metaplasia

22

acute inflammation is the immediate and early response to an injurious agent and occurs in two phases: the vascular phase and the cellular phase

true

23

chronic inflammation is self perpetuating and may last for weeks, months, or even years

true

24

erythrocytes play a central role in the physiology of inflammation

false

25

vasoconstriction occurs during the vascular stage of inflammation

true

26

fever is a pathologic response to bacterial and viral infection with and has no positive outcome on illness

false

27

these signs of inflammation are known as redness, swelling, heat, pain and loss of function

cardinal

28

histamine, serotonin, cytokines, bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and platelet-activating factor are ANSWER of inflammation

mediators

29

body temp is regulated by the thermoregulatory center in the

hypothalamus

30

represents an increase in body temp due to resetting of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory set point as the result of endogenous pyrogens released from host macrophages or endothelial cells

fever / pyrexia

31

refers to heat transfer through the circulation of air currents

convection

32

stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capacity to generate multiple cell types

true

33

DNA synthesis takes place during the G0 phase of the cell cycle

false/ during S phase

34

inflammatory phase of wound healing prepares the wound environment for the healing process

true

35

formation of granulation tissue involves the creation of new capillaries

true

36

a large surface wound is likely to heal by the process of primary intention

false/ secondary intention

37

tissue contain cells that normally stop dividing when growth ceases

stable

38

secreted locally and assembles into a network of spaces surrounding tissue cells during the process of tissue regeneration

extracellular matrix

39

when regeneration cannot occur, healing by replacement with a connective tissue occurs, a process that terminates in

scar formation

40

generally applied to small hormone like proteins that increase cell size and cell division

growth factor

41

an abnormality in healing by scar tissue repair is the formation of ANSWER, which are benign tumor-like masses caused by excess production of scar tissue

keloid

42

the genetic information needed for protein synthesis is encoded in the DNA contained in the cell nucleus

true

43

there are 6 bases that make up the alphabet of the genetic code

false / 4

44

RNA and DNA have the same general structure

false/ dna 2 strands rna 1

45

polygenic inheritance can be predicted utilizing the medelian laws of genetic transmission

false / single gene expression

46

messenger rna carries the instructions for protein synthesis

true

47

involves the copying of the genetic code containing the instructions for protein synthesis from DNA to a complementary strand of mRNA

transcription

48

recognizable traits, physical or biochemical, associated with a specific genotype

phenotype

49

utilized to describe possible combinations that can occur with transmission of single gene dominant and recessive traits

punnet square

50

cell cycle process in which non germ cells are replicated

mitosis

51

limited to replicating germ cells and result in the formation of gametes or reproductive cells

meiosis

52

type of RNA that functions to deliver the activated former amino acids to protein molecules in the ribosome

transfer RNA

53

most genetic disorders are caused by an alteration in DNA sequences that alter the synthesis of a single gene product

true

54

autosomal recessive disorders are manifested even if only one member of the gene pair is affected

false/ both members

55

teratogenic agent is an environmental agent that produces abnormalities only during the first 4 weeks of embryonic or fetal development

true

56

down syndrome, turner syndrome, and klinefelter syndrome are all examples of chromosomal disorders that occur from an alteration in chromosome number

true

57

cleft lip and palate is an example of an autosomal dominant disorder

false / ex of mutifactoral inheritance disorders

58

involves a single mutant allele that is transmitted from an affected parent to an offspring

autosomal dominant disorder

59

sex linked disorders almost always are associated with the ANSWER chromosome and are predominantly recessive

X

60

would be female, short in stature, lack in breast development, and would not menstruate

turner syndrome

61

autosomal dominant disorder is a condition involving neurogenic tumors that arise from schwann cells and other elements of the peripheral nervous system

neurofibromatosis

62

neural tube defects are often the result of

folic acid deficiency

63

cancer is a disorder of altered cell differentiation and growth

true

64

surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the only identified treatment modalities for cancer

false/ those plus hormonal therapy and biotherapy

65

benign and malignant tumors are composed of parenchymal cells and connective tissue

true

66

cell differentiation is the process whereby proliferating cells are transformed into different and more specialize cell types

true

67

less differentiated tumors that grow in a crab like manner to invade surrounding tissues, have cells that break loose and travel to distant sites to form metastasis, and inevitably cause suffering and death unless their growth can be controlled through treatment

cancer

68

involves the microscopic examination of cancer cells to determine their level of differentiation and the number of mitoses

grading a tumor

69

in general, bengin tumors usually are named by adding the suffix ??? to the parenchymal tissue type from which the growth originated

-oma

70

development of a secondary tumor in a location distant from the primary tumor

matestasis

71

involve metastasis that occurs by way of the blood vessels

hematogenous

72

the production of signs and symptoms at sites that are not directly affected by the disease or cancer

paraneoplastic syndromes