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Flashcards in TEST 3 GI Deck (118):
1

function of GI tract

digestion, motility, secretions

2

controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system

extrinsic nervous system

3

stimulation inhibits activity

sympathetic

4

a general increase in activity of the entire enteric nervous system

parasympathetic

5

parasympathetic in cardiac system

tells you to slow down

6

The motor impulses for the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing are carried in the

trigeminal (V)
glossopharyngeal (IX)
vagus (X)
and hypoglossal (XII) cranial nerves

7

Impulses for the esophageal phase are carried by

vagus nerve

8

when you stimulate the vagus nerve

heart rate goes down

9

inhibiting acid secretions

D cells, end in statin

10

mucus, protects stomach lining

goblet cells

11

gastric acid

parietal cells

12

pepsinogen- protease precursor

chief cells

13

gastrin- stimulates acid secretions

G cells

14

produces hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor

parietal cells; intrinsic factor helps with production of vitamin b 12

15

if pancreas is sick what enzyme levels will be looks at

lipase, amylase, protease levels

16

who is immune to h. pyloric infections

elderly

17

stimulate gastric acid secretion

gastrin

18

potent growth hormone–releasing activity and has a stimulatory effect on food intake and digestive function, while reducing energy expenditure.

ghrelin

19

inhibits acid secretions and stimulates mucus production

prostaglandin E

20

inhibits the protection of prostaglandin E

NSAIDS-can cause ulcers

21

dismantling of foods into their constituent parts, a process that requires hydrolysis, enzyme cleavage, and fat emulsification

digestion

22

breakdown of a compound that involves a chemical reaction with water

hydrolysis

23

the use of enzymes to cut substances into smaller components.

enzyme clevage

24

breakdown of large globules of dietary fat into smaller particles.

emulsification

25

process of moving nutrients and other materials from the external environment in the lumen of the GI tract into the blood or lymph of the internal environment.

absorption

26

represents a loss of appetite.

anorexia

27

ill-defined and unpleasant subjective sensation.

nausea-symptom

28

is a forceful discharge of stomach contents

vomit

29

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

30

achalasia

deinnervation of the muscle

31

results from damage to nerves in the food tube (esophagus),

achalasia

32

if they're having epigastric pain what does that indicate

dyspepsia

33

mimics angia pectoris

esophageal pain

34

sharp or well organized.

somatic abdominal pain

35

diffuse or poorly located

visceral abdominal pain

36

visceral pain is usually due to

something with an organ ; its deep

37

distant from the source but in same dermatome.

referred pain

38

RUQ or mid epigastric pain is indicative of

something with the gallbladder

39

most common cause of constipation

low-residue diet (low-fiber) and lack of exercise

40

normal bowel movements

3 per week

41

manifestations of lactose intolerance

abdominal cramping
bloating
diarrhea

42

does dysphagia hurt

no

43

painful swallowing

odynophagia

44

regurgitation of undigested food

diverticuli

45

a tear that does not penetrate the wall of the esophagus.

An esophageal laceration (Mallory-Weiss syndrome)

46

first signs of esophageal laceration (Mallory-Weiss syndrome)

Hematemesis
-blood in vomit
lower chest pain

47

esophageal laceration (Mallory-Weiss syndrome)
3 b's

bleeding
bright red emesis
blood tinged stool

48

defect in the diaphragm that allows a portion of the stomach to protrude (herniation) through the diaphragmatic opening into the thorax.

hiatal hernia

49

90% of hiatal hernias are what

sliding

50

path of hiatal hernia

increased intra abdominal pressure ; obesity and smoking

51

manifestations of GERD

upper abdominal pain within 1 hour of eating
chest pains
pain when lying down

52

usually the first course of action because they provide quick relief of symptoms. These include products such as Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, and Tums.

antacids- treatment for gerd

53

what do antacids do

neutralize acids

54

These do not act as quickly as antacids but they do provide longer relief. Popular H2 receptor blockers include Pepcid AC and Zantac.

h2 receptor blocker =treatment for gerd

55

difference between h2 receptor blocker and proton pump inhibitors

h2 provides longer relief but ppi have healing capabilities

56

ending in zole

proton pump inhibitor

57

These drugs are designed to prevent acid production and release in the stomach and intestines, thereby reducing the risk of acid reflux and esophageal damage.

ppi

58

esophageal cancer

usually in the neck region the squamous cells are effected

59

where does adenocarcinoma effect

towards the bottom of esophagus

60

gastritis can occur from what two things

aspirin and alc

61

common precursor of gastritis and peptic ulcers

h pylori gastritis

62

ulceration, in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum

peptic ulcer

63

Two major risk factors for peptic ulcer disease

NSAIDS and h. pyloric

64

gastric ulcers

heartburn
pain after meals-food doesn't relieve pain

65

duodenum ulcers

right upper gastric pain
radiates to their back
food will relive pain
melena -dark bloody stool
initially food helps, but pain after 30 min-2 hours of eating (empties out of stomach and into duod)

66

major complications of peptic ulcers

perforations and bleeding

67

chronic disease the lasts greater than 3 months functional disorder. dont know why. alternates with diarrhea and constipation

irritable bowel syndrome

68

most common in women and patient is most likely to have anxiety and depression

ibs

69

chronic inflammatory condition of the bowel

crohns disease

70

effects any part of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus ; inflammatory lesions

crohns

71

skip lesions in crohns look like what

cobblestone in appearance

72

abdominal pain depending on location
diarrhea
affected area

manifestations of crohns

73

between 5-10 stools per day; diarrhea

crohns disease

74

chronic disease that effects the mucus membrane of the colon and/or rectum

ulcerative colitis

75

hallmark symptom of ulcerative colitis

10-20 per day associated with bloody diarrhea and lower abdominal pain

76

associated with increased cancer risk after 8-10 years of disease

ulcerative colitis

77

out pouching of the walls of the colon

diverticulitis

78

low fiber diet

diverticulitis

79

lower left sided abdominal pain

diverticulitis

80

fluid in the peritoneal cavity

peritonitis

81

swallowing gum

appendicitis

82

begins with vague periembolicus pain
then shifts to RLQ-MCBURNYS POINT
rebound tenderness
elevated wbc 1600
rovsing sign-pain roves from the left side to right

appendicitis

83

chronic diarrhea
joint pain
seizures
tooth enamel loss
numbness

celiac disease/sprue

84

immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine.

celiac disease

85

gluten is in

proteins-wheat,rye,barley

86

loss of nutrients and vitamins which can eventually effect the brain

malabsorption syndrome

87

rapid gastric emptying; osmotic shift in vessels

dumping syndrome

88

dumping syndrome usually follows what

gastric bypass surgery

89

sugar just goes straight through them so what should they not have with meals

fluids; dumping syndrome

90

what does the liver do

responsible for glycogenesis and glycolgenolysis, protein metabolism, fat metabolism,

91

manifestations of liver disease

impaired protein synthesis
accumulation of toxins and hormones
inadequate bile and urine synthesis
release of marker enzymes in the blood

92

what tests are drawn if liver is dysfunctional (markers elevated if liver is injured)

AST
ALT

93

liver is sick so it doesn't take up the bilirubin and doesn't get rid of it

jaundice

94

most common hepatitis

b

95

fecal-oral route
abrupt
last 2-7 weeks

hep A

96

insidious
transmission of blood and body fluids
6-4 months
mom to baby, sexual contact, through needles

hep B

97

insidious
most common for needles/drug users
through blood transfusions
2-12 months

hep c

98

stages of hep

prodromal-2 wks after exposure and ends w appearance of jaundice.
icteric-jaundice 1-2 wks after prodromal phase
dark urine, clay colored stools
recovery-resolution of jaundice,liver funx return

99

dark urine-break down of rbc
clay colored stools

jaundice

100

clinical syndrome resulting in severe impairment or necrosis of liver cells and potential liver failure. Results from HBV, toxic reactions to drugs (APAP), and congenital metabolic disorders

fulminant hep ; tylenol can kill liver

101

irreversible inflammatory disease; leading cause of death in the us

cirrhosis; fat accumulation

102

accumulation of protein-containing (ascitic) fluid within the abdomen.

ascites

103

increased venous pressure in the portal circulation

portal hypertension

104

large veins
splenomeagly
in esophagus
biggest complication is esophageal varices which can rupture

portal hypertension

105

increase of ammonia in the brain tissue

hepatic encephalopathy

106

treatment for hepatic encephalopathy

lactulose - helps get rid of ammonia

107

Most Common Clinical Manifestation of Portal hypertension

esophageal varices

108

stones

Cholelithiasis

109

inflammation of the gallbladder

Cholecystitis

110

gall stones form when what crystallizes

calcium and cholesterol

111

Colicky pain (biliary colic)
Epigastric and RUQ pains
Pain that radiates to the mid upper back
Jaundice
Nausea and vomiting
Heartburn
Intolerance to fat-containing foods
Clay-colored stools

cholecytitis

112

positive murphy sign

cholecystitis

113

Indigestion
Leukocytosis / Fever
Jaundice
Pain and tenderness in the right upper quadrant (may be referred to the right shoulder)
RUQ tenderness and abdominal rigidity

cholecystitis

114

Severe symptoms or none at all
Attacks of pain 3 to 6 hours after a heavy meal
With total obstruction symptoms of blockage occurs
Obstructive jaundice
Clay colored stools
Pruritis
Steatorrhea

cholelithiasis

115

sudden severe epigastric pain
radiates to the back

acute pancreatitis

116

LU abdominal pain radiating to the back
vomiting
flagulence
diabetes

chronic pancreatitis

117

2 signs in pancreatitis

cullens sign
greys turner sign

118

triggers of pancreatitis

alcohol and gallstones