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Flashcards in PRE LECTURES FOR TEST 2 Deck (71):
1

HDL is WHAT cholesterol

good

2

most abdominal aneurysms are asymptomatic

false; thoracic

3

primary hypertension is characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure that results form some other disorder such as kidney disease

false; secondary hypert

4

orthostatic hypotension is an abnormal rise in bp that occurs when assuming the standing position from that of the supine position

false; drop in bp

5

venous insufficiency leads to tissue congestion and edema in lower extremities

true

6

controls the transfer of molecules across the vascular wall, plays a role in platelet adhesion and blood clotting, and functions in the modulation of blood flow and vascular resistance

endothelium

7

carries a risk for the development of atherosclerosis, a major cause of cardiovascular disease

hyperlipidemia

8

functional disorder caused by intense vasospasm of the arteries and arterioles in the fingers and less often in the toes

raynaud phenomenon

9

an acute, life threatening condition that involves hemorrhage into the vessel wall with longitudinal tearing or separation of the vessel wall to form a blood filled channel

aortic dissection

10

pericarditis represents an inflammatory process of the myocardium

false; pericardium

11

all types of angina represent an acute myocardial infarction, aka heart attack

true

12

the heart extracts and uses 60-80% of oxygen in blood flowing through the coronary arteries

true

13

atherosclerosis is by far the most common cause of coronary heart disease

true

14

stable atherosclerotic plaques tend to rupture more than unstable atherosclerotic plaques and lead to acute coronary syndromes, ranging from unstable angina to ST segment elevation MI

false

15

life threatening, slow or rapid compression of the heart due to the accumulation of fluid, pus, or blood in the pericardial sac

cardiac tamponade

16

a disorder that follows a group A strep

rheumatic heart disease

17

is of great concern due to the potential effects of chronic valvular disorders that produce permanent cardiac dysfunction and sometimes fatal heart failure years later

rheumatic heart disease

18

a narrowing of the valve orifice and failure of the valve leaflets to close properly

stenosis

19

creatinine kinase, myoglobin, and troponin are known as WHAT and are useful for acute myocardial infarction determination and classification

serum cardiac markers

20

decreased cardiac output will lead to an increase in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate

false ; decrease

21

endothelins are potent vasodilators that are released from the endothelial cells throughout the circulation

true

22

myocardial hypertrophy is a long term mechanism by which the heart compensates for increased workload

true

23

afterload represents the force that the contracting heart must generate to eject blood from the filled heart

true

24

major complications of shock include pulmonary injury, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal ulceration, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

true

25

blood backs up in the systemic circulation, causing peripheral edema and congestion of the abdominal organs

right sided heart failure

26

most common cause of WHAT is acute myocardial infarction

cardiogenic shock

27

examples of WHAT include loss of whole blood , plasma, or extracellular fluid

hypovolemic shock

28

left side of heart pumps blood to lungs

false ; right

29

venues side of circulation contains a larger portion of the blood volume than the arterial side

true

30

rate of blood flow through a vessel is affected by pressure, resistance, and vessel radius

true

31

loose fitting sac that surrounds the heart is called the myocardium

false; muscular portion

32

rhythmic impulse of the cardiac condition system is generation at the AV node known as the pacemaker of the heart

false; SA node

33

the result of disorganized electrical activity within the atrium or the ventricle

fibrillation

34

amount of blood the heart pumps each minute and is determined by the formula SV x HR

cardiac output

35

thin walled, distensible, and collapsible vessels that are capable of enlarging and storing large quantities of blood to the circulation when needed

veins

36

period of cardiac cycle is marked by ventricular relaxation and filling

diastole period

37

heart valve that controls the direction of blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle is called

tricuspid valve

38

neural mechanisms and humoral mechanisms are examples of

short term regulation of blood pressure

39

disorders of the heart muscle and are usually associated with disorders of myocardial performance, which may be mechanical or electrical

cardiomyopathies

40

heart rate in WHAT is often slower than normal, the skin is dry and warm. these findings are considered the cardinal signs of this type of shock

neurogenic shock

41

most dramatic symptom of acute heart failure syndrome and is characterized by capillary build moving into the alveoli

pulmonary edema

42

pulmonary ventiliation is the movement of blood through the lungs

false; total exchange of gas between atmosphere and lungs

43

deoxygenated blood leaves the right heart through th pulmonary veins

false; artery

44

peripheral chemoreceptors monitor arterial oxygen levels and will stimulate respirations when the po2 has dropped below 60 mm hg

true

45

lung compliance refers to the ease with which the lungs can be inflated

true

46

movement of air through the dead space contributes to the work of breathing but not to gas exchange

true

47

produced by type ii alveolar cells, exerts very important effects on lung inflation, including lowering the surface tension, increasing the lung compliance and ease of inflation, and assisting in preventing pulmonary edema by keeping the alveoli dry

surfactant

48

relation between the oxygen carried in combination with hemoglobin and the po2 of the blood can be described using the oxygen hemoglobin

dissociation curve

49

most important chemoreceptors for sensing changes in blood carbon dioxide content are

central chemoreceptors

50

process by which gases in the alveoli cross the alveolar-capillary membrane

diffusion

51

blood vessels in the pulmonary circulation undergo significant WHAT when they are exposed to hypoxia

vasoconstriction

52

most frequent cause of respiratory tract infections

virus

53

viral infection that can affect the upper and lower respiratory tract and is transmitted by aerosol or direct contact

influenza

54

represents reinfection from either inhaled droplet nuclei or reactivation of a previously healed primary lesion

secondary tuberculosis

55

typical pneumonias result from infection by bacteria

true

56

viral infection that has a peak incidence between 3-6 months of age and is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus

acute bronchiolitis

57

common cold is a viral infection of the

upper resp tract

58

pneumonias are commonly categorized as being either community acquired or

hospital acquired

59

infectious disease caused by M tuberculosis, a rod shaped aerobic bacterium that is resistant to destruction

tuberculosis

60

an inflammation of the nasal passages and sinusitis to an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses

rhinitis

61

dramatic, potentially fatal condition that is characterized by inflammatory edema of the supraglottic area, including the epiglottis and pharyngeal structures

acute epiglottitis

62

pleural, musculoskeletal and myocardial pain are similar in description and almost impossible to differentiate

false

63

extrinsic or atopic asthma is typically initiated by a type I hypersensitivity reaction induced by exposure to an antigen or allergen

true

64

persons with emphysema are often labels as blue bloaters due to the chronic hypoxemia and eventually right side heart failure with peripheral edema

false; pink puffers

65

manifested by pancreatic exocrine deficiency and a noted increase in levels of sodium chloride in the sweat

cystic fibrosis

66

hypercapnia refers to an abnormal increase in oxygen levels

false

67

abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity

pleural effusion

68

most frequent admitting diagnosis in children hospitals and is a leading cause of chronic illness in children

asthma

69

occurs when the intrapleural pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, permitting air to enter but not leave the pleural space

tension pneumothorax

70

when a blood borne substance lodges in a branch of the pulmonary artery and obstructs blood flow

pulmonary embolism

71

right sided heart failure resulting from primary lung disease and involves hypertrophy and eventual failure of that ventricle

cor pulmonale