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Flashcards in TEST 3 DIABETES Deck (51):
1

According to the statistics posted in the ppt posted with this blueprint….Diabetes is the _______ leading cause of death in the US in 2015.

7TH

2

what cells secrete glucagon

alpha cells

3

what cells secrete insulin

beta cells

4

the bodys fuel supply

liver

5

When blood glucose levels fall below normal, as they do between meals, the liver converts stored glycogen back to glucose

glycogenolysis.

6

The liver synthesizes glucose from amino acids, glycerol, and lactic acid in a process called

Gluconeogenesis

7

what 3 body cells cannot use fatty acids and glucose interchangeably for energy

brain, nervous tissue, rbc

8

What are the Counterregulatory Hormones?

Catecholamine's
Growth hormone
Glucocorticoids

9

work against the action of insulin, raising blood glucose levels in response to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

Counterregulatory Hormones

10

Epinephrine:

Stress
Stimulates glycogenolysis
Lipolytic effect on adipose cells

Catecholamine's

11

Increases protein synthesis
Decreases cellular uptake and use of glucose

growth hormone

12

Critical to survival during periods of fasting and starvation
Stimulate gluconeogenesis by the liver
Cortisol, ACTH
Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for cortisol secretion

glucocorticoids

13

due to autoimmune β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency

type 1

14

due to a progressive loss of β-cell insulin secretion frequently on the background of insulin resistance

type 2

15

diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that was not clearly overt diabetes prior to gestation

gestational diabetes mellitus

16

All individuals with type 1A diabetes require

exogenous insulin replacement

17

1st clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes

diabetic ketoacidosis

18

Beta cell destruction with NO evidence of autoimmunity

type 1B diabetes

19

what is the honeymoon phase

in type 1 diabetes, their beta cells are still functioning producing insulin so it looks all fine

20

non insulin dependent diabetes

type 2

21

metabolic abnormalities of type 2

insulin resistance,
increased glucose production by the liver,
impaired secretion of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells

22

What are the major factors that predispose a client to Type 2

obesity and physical inactivity

23

in type 2 what happens to postpradinal blood levels

increases when it should decrease

24

Defined as glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy and is not clearly overt diabetes

gestational diabetes

25

post delivery follow up care for gestational diabetes

evaluated during first postpartum visit with ogtt with 75g glucose load

26

Type 1 diabetes, signs and symptoms

arise suddenly

27

Type 2 diabetes

develops more insidious

28

most common signs and symptoms 3 P

polyuria- excessive urine
polydypsia- excessive thirst
polyphagia-excessive hunger

29

Recurrent blurred vision
Fatigue
Paresthesia
Skin infections

signs and symptoms of diabetes

30

hemoglobin into which glucose has been incorporated.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin; what a person's average blood glucose level was for the 2 to 3 months before the test. This can help determine how well a person's diabetes is being controlled over time.

31

diabetes management goal

tight glycemic control

32

Hyperglycemia
Ketosis
Metabolic acidosis

diabetic ketoacidosis characteristics

33

definitive diagnosis of dka

hyperglycemia (blood glucose levels >250 mg/dL [13.8 mmol/L])
low serum bicarbonate
low arterial pH
positive urine and serum ketones

34

DKA signs and symptoms

polyuria
polydipsia
fruit smell of breath
Kussmaul respiration**
Metabolic acidosis-acidic. low pH in blood and tissues

35

goal in treating DKA

improve circulatory volume
decrease blood glucose
correct acidosis and electrolyte balance

36

Dehydration-Brain cells
Thromboembolic events
Weakness
Polyuria
Excessive thirst
Neurologic signs and symptoms

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)

37

Neurologic signs and symptoms of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

Babinski reflex
Muscle fasciculations
Hemianopia

38

treatment of hypoglycemia

rule 15- 15g of glucose can be repeated every 15 minutes for 3 doses

39

a cycle of insulin-induced posthypoglycemic episodes

Somogyi Effect

40

when do the hypoglycemic episodes occur for smoggy effect

at night or at a time when it is not recognized, rendering the diagnosis of the phenomenon more difficult.

41

when does the dawn phenomenon occur

between 5 am and 9 am

42

hot and dry

sugars high

43

cold and clammy

sugars low

44

somoglyi effect and dawn phen happen to whom

type 1

45

type 1 are

body doesn't make insulin

46

type 2

body doesn't respond to the little insulin made

47

associated with diminished perception of vibration, pain, and temperature, particularly in the lower extremities.

somatic neuropathies

48

disorders of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system function.

autonomic neuropathies

49

enzymes the pancreas produces

amylase, lipase, protease

50

categories for risk of diabetes

FPG >126
A1C >6.5%
random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL

51

first manifestation of diabetic neuropathy

increase in urinary albumin excretion, which is defined as a urine protein loss greater or equal to 30 mg/day or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (A/C ratio) greater or equal to 30 μg/mg (normal <30 μg/mg) from a spot urine collection.