Test 2 Lectures 2-4 Flashcards Preview

Pharm > Test 2 Lectures 2-4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Lectures 2-4 Deck (80)
Loading flashcards...
61

Name the drugs that are non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: propranolol, timolol, nadolol
- Cardioselective: atenolol, metoprolol
- Partial agonists: Pindolol

(comes up again later)

62

Effects on HR/contractility of non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: decrease
- Cardioselective: decrease
- Partial agonists: decrease, but less because of partial agonism

63

Effects on TPR of non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: increase (unopposed constriction by alpha1)
- Cardioselective: little effect (beta2 still work to vasodilate)
- Partial agonists: may be slight decrease

64

Effects on renin release of non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: decrease
- Cardioselective: decrease
- Partial agonists: decrease

65

Effects on bronchioles of non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: bronchoconstriction (particularly in asthmatics)
- Cardioselective: less bronchoconstriction (but still not recommended)
- Partial agonists: Asthmatics have a reduced
capacity to dilate bronchioles.

66

Effects on glucose metabolism of non-selective beta-blockers (B1 and B2), cardioselective beta blockers (B1), and partial agonists (B1 and B2)

- Non-selective: masks sx of hypoglycemia (due to epi release)
- Cardioselective: little effect
- Partial agonists: reduced response to epi (since partial response)

67

What drug category are propranolol, nadolol, and timolol?
Explain their effects.

- Non-selective beta-blockers

- Decreased HR and contractility
- Reduced renin release (therefore reduced vasoconstriction)
- Inhibition of aqueous humor production

68

Propranolol, nadolol, and timolol:
Toxicity, therapeutic uses, and contraindications?

- Tox: Bronchospasm, masks sx of hypoglycemia (blocks epi), bradycardia, increased triglycerides
- Uses: HTN, angina, glaucoma, early to mod heart failure, arrhythmia
- Contra: Bronchospasm during asthma, sinus bradycardia, 2nd and 3rd degree heart block, cardiogenic shock

69

What drug category are metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol?
Explain their effects.
Which is short-acting?

- Cardioselective beta1 blockers (reduced resp side-effects)

- Decrease HR and contractility
- Reduced renin release
- Decreased symp activation

- Esmolol is short-acting (emergent use)

70

Metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol:
Toxicity, therapeutic uses, and contraindications?

- Tox: Hypotension, bradycardia
- Uses: HTN, angina, arrhythmia
- Contra: sinus bradycardia, 2nd/3rd degree heart block, cardiogenic shock

71

What drug category is pindolol? (when would you use it over other beta-blockers?)
Explain its effects.

- Partial agonist beta-blocker (*used when symp activity is high)

- Decrease BP
- Decrease contractility
- Reduced renin release
- Decreased symp activation

72

Pindolol:
Toxicity, therapeutic uses, and contraindications?

- Tox: hypotension
- Uses: HTN
- Contra: sinus bradycardia, 2nd/3rd degree heart block, cardiogenic shock

73

What drug category are phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine? (how are they different)
Explain its effects.

- Non-selective alpha-blockers (phentolamine is reversible, phenoxybenzamine is irreversible)

- Decrease BP (alpha blockage + unmasks beta effects)
- Increased chronotropy and inotropy

74

Phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine:
Toxicity and therapeutic uses? (No contraindications)

- Tox: prolonged HTN, reflex tachycardia
- Uses: HTN associated w/pheochromocytoma, vasoconstrictor-induced extravasation

75

What drug category are prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin?
Explain its effects.

- Selective alpha1-receptor blockers

- Inhibit vasoconstriction (less cardiac stimulation than non-selective alpha-blockers cuz alpha2 still works)
- Prostate smooth m. relaxation

76

Prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin:
Toxicity and therapeutic uses? (No contraindications)

- Tox: Orthostatic HTN
- Uses: HTN, BPH

77

List the two adrenergic receptors that are expressed on the pre-synaptic membrane of both noradrenergic and non-noradrenergic nerve terminals and describe how their activation influences NT release

- Alpha2 (inhibits NT release)
- Beta2 (causes tremor)

78

What are the relative 1/2-lifes of the catecholamines?

All short

79

How do the 1/2-lives of propranolol, nadolol, and timolol differ?

Propranolol and timolol: 4 hrs
Nadolol: 20-24 hrs

80

What's another name for ephedrine?

What is the relative 1/2-life of ephedrine/norephedrine?
What degrades them?

Adrenaline chloride

- Relatively short 1/2-life
- COMT for ephedrine, COMT and MAO of norephedrine