Flashcards in Test One ~ Ch. 1-5 Deck (39):
What are the male roles in the Hunting and Gathering society?
Men hunted game, usually more than needed, and lived in small groups that migrated and followed the animals.
What were the women's role in a Hunting and Gathering society?
Women gathered berries, nuts, grains and had very little children because that meant another mouth to feed and made traveling difficult with a small child.
How was the work done by men and women during the hunting and gathering society different from the agriculture society?
During the hunting and gathering society, both men and women worked. Men took pride in themselves as they competed for the biggest game while women gathered.
What does the Aphrodite (Venus) of Willendorf stand for?
The need to control fertility in nature.
What is the level of technology in the Hunting and Gathering societies?
Old Stone Age. very basic. just find a sharp stone. The Neolithic Stone Age brings revolution where still stone tools, but now they are being designed for a specific purpose.
Compare Early River Valleys to Classical Civilzations.
With the beginning of agriculture, nomadic people settled down in one place and became to establish LOOSE cities. Classical Civilizations had a form of government and FIRM cities.
What is dynasty?
A family of kings. Sons inherit the throne and cycle continues until the family dies out.
What is the Mandate of Heaven / "Sons of Heavens"?
When the gods allow the former dynasty to be impeached and replaced with the family that took over.
Compare Qin and Zhou dynasties.
1. Zhou extended into Yangzi river valley; Southern china/hong kong. north - Great Wall
2. Zhou heighten the focus on central gov't; nonartiscrotcrate regional leaders
3. Zhou unified Mandarin Chinese; census for taxes and forced labor
Describe the gov't in Han dynasty
Confusion. Wudi emporer who put in;to the confusion exam that you must pass to rule
Explain the Chinese concept of nature.
Many believed in Daoism, harmony with nature. ying-yang being in balance with you and nature
What is the Chinese view of merchants?
Even below the mean people because of confusion- confusion is a group not a self like merchants. Although they were very important.
What is the main influence did the Arayans have on India?
Tight levels of village organization. religion- many gods and goddess/Hinduism. Caste sytstem, Vedas- songs to arean gods, which became Hindu gods
Compare the Mauryan and Gupta dynasties
Mauryan relied on military support, converted to Buddhism.
Gupta negotiated with princes and intermarried with other families, smaller territory.
Explain India's Caste System.
Varnas - Brahmas (priests), warriors, skilled laborers, merchants, farmers and laborers, and beneath all - the untouchables. Born into caste system, no led-way to move, if anything, down
Compare Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism - no clear founder, reincarnation, leaders/priests, older, believes in caste system, thousands of gods, Upanishads- like guide book written by hindu teachers
Buddhism - Buddha, reincarnation, nirvana, enlightenment, 8-fold path.
Both come from India, reincarnation, concpet of enlightenment
The Buddha state of enlightenment. where your soul stops traveling/reincarnation and join buddha. perfect understanding of suffering and selflessnes
Discuss India's trade contacts
India was located between China and the Mediterean(silk road), which meant, anything coming or going would normally pass through India, allowing it to flourish. Africa & Rome/ Europe. Brought religion - Buddhism
Compare the social & economic systems in India & China.
India stiff caste system compared to China. India's merchants played a bigger role than China. Both social inequality. both value trade, but china doesn't put merchants on higher status
What are the Punic Wars?
Fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean - won by Rome after 3 separate conflicts. 1- take Silcitly 2- Elephants with Hamabrabi 3- rome placed salt on soil, destroyed farming
Compare American Democracy to Athens.
Athens had a direct democracy, everyone had a voice, though only a minority attended. We have elected officials.
Describe the Roman Senate.
Assembly of Roman aristocrats; advised on policy within the republic; one of the early elements of the Roman constiution.
What is the Socatic Method?
encouraged his pupils to ask questions. The method of questioning.
Compare the Chinese forms of architecture of the Greeks and Romans.
Greek and Roman architecture was inspired by Egypt, meant to last, marble.
China- not durable, not meant to last, wood
What were slaves used for in Rome?
Gladiator fights, entertainment, not in military, farming/plantations, mines, teachers for children.
Describe the cultural influences on Sub-Saharan Africa.
Eygpt- Hellenisitic culture comes south because of Alexander
Discuss the last of the Early Civilization Centers
Meso America- last agricultural civilization, used aqueducts, technically not a river valley
What is Shintoism?
Original religion of Japan- combo of anseters and nature spirits
What happened to the Eastern Roman Empire after Rome fell?
Bizitnean empire changed name eastern half - the wealthier half. no germans/huns
Christianity, Buddha- became a god because of trend monotheism, Hinduism- now only three gods
Compare Christianity with hinduism and Buddhism
Influence for moral good
Concepts stressed by Buddism
Mutral respect, stress more equality and individual ideas - on your own path to enligthnement
Describe barbrians at the end of the Classical Era
Nomadic people, anyone not civilized, not living in a civilization
The purpose of taxing trade is
government needs revenue. Money to pay for projects and to run with the nesities.
part of hymns songs to arean gods- India/Hinduism
China's written language
The 4 great river civilzations
India, China, Med. and Olmecs
Indus Valley Cities
Harappa and minhoj'daro. Archeologists interested in it because the cities were planed out with plumbing.