Flashcards in Test Five ~ Ch. 21-24 Deck (23):
1453, conquered Constaninople. Ottoman sultan. Ended the post-classical period. Became Istanbul. Kept the structure.
Akbar the Great
Son and successor of Humayan, built military and administrative systems, worked toward corporation with Hindu Princes. Created new religion to bind Muslims and Hindus. Brought Mughal empire into golden age. Wanted to learn, study- welcomed janissaries. Tolerant.
Conquest of Constantinople
Lead by Mehemd 2. Bombed walls and then pillaged and plundered for three days as reward to troops. Allowed Ottomans to stretch into Africa and Southern Europe. Hagia Sophia.
Ottoman infantry- dominated ott. armies, slave boys from Balkans. Translated military service into political influence. Convert to Islam. Elite force in military. Fight over succession. Train with gunpowder.
Ottomans vs. Safavids
Shia- saf.- no separate church and state leaders. and Sunni- ott. political and religious leaders. Battle of Chaldiran- Decided the fate of the world today- other one would dominate the area today. Hated each other's guts. Wanted to be on top of the other.
Battle of Chaldiran
Between Ottomans and Safavids. Decided the fate of the world today. Safavids lost. But ottomans didn't go far into Safavids land because of low on supplies and winter coming. Gave Ott. a buffer zone. 1514. Tried to force the ott. to become Shia.
Religion that Akbar made. People didn't practice, but showed that Akbar was trying to make an effort. Mughal. Hindi majority and Muslim minority.
Goal of European exploration
Trade with Asia, but ott. in way. High taxes. But Europe goes around Africa and looking for other routes. Northwest passageway- Columbus started the way. Later wanted to control resources, converts of Catholics.
Vasco de Gama
Cuilcut, India. Didn't want to trade with European goods. Had to pay with silver to prove that he went to India. Sparks trade that markets only take silver. Spain is willing to give up silver. Violence is used to get trade items. Converts in lower cast system- catholic.
Indian Ocean trade
Before: peaceful, not a lot of violence- small navies. Africa, Middle East, east Asia exchange with everyone.
After: violence- if low on silver. Coming with soldiers. don't have luxury times.
Portuguese vs. Dutch
Fought over spice islands. Portugesue spread out and tried to own as much as possible. Dutch monopoly over cinnamon- cut hands off. Dutch drove Portuguese out of spice islands. Became rich.
Jesuits. Lower cast turned toward Christianity. Better deal for lower- better life after death. Everyone is loved
John Lock- three rights, life, liberty, property. if not protecting rights, you can rise up. Wanted people to have a voice. Absolute- tyrant, don't give up power hated.
Before THE industrialization. People are working at home by hand to produce goods for capitalist market. Before machines. Sell more than buy.
Cause if French Revolution
Famine- poor harvest- bread expensive. Hostile over grain. No say in parlimant. Estates general- three- clergy, nobility, everyone else(one vote, overruled). National essembly- formed new gov. Loss of money over parties and helping Americans.
Revolution out of control- Louie 16 dead. People wanted to have someone put the country back together. Fall: went to Russia. Failed- exiled, came back, exiled for good.
Congress of vennia
Bismark wanted to balance the power of France- united them. Took power away from France and gained it.
Leave ott. And others follow. Signal of decline
Reform bill of 1832
Property allowed you to vote for parlimant. Middle class didn't have property but were richer. Middle class rebeled- got say in gov. Own property or factory
Heat things to get rid of germs. Pasteur things.
Battle of Plassey. Robert Clive
Fought in 1757. Although out-#ed, had inside spies reveal everything. Battle was decided even before fought. Robert established foundations in northern India.
British East India trading Co. In India (it's just good business..) ;)
Like Dutch. Intervened in wars between local princes. Demanded land for helping. Slowly took over India. Battled with French 5x over control. Word traveled slow, months, before England knew what was happening. Controlled almost all of India and Southern Asia.