The Gilded Age Flashcards Preview

APUSH > The Gilded Age > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Gilded Age Deck (70)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

the Gilded Age

A

the rich vs the poor

2
Q

who completed the Transcontinental Railroad?

A

immigrant workers

3
Q

everything about railroads

A

-they were built with federal and private funds (source of corruption)

-the backbone of the American economy at the time

-provide new technological, management, and business techniques

-technology reduced the need for laborers while production increased

-the Union Pacific goes west

-the Central Pacific goes east

4
Q

Taylorism

A

(created by Frederick Taylor) a plan that:

-divided work to increase efficiency over everything else (working on one specific thing)

-increased production

5
Q

How does Taylorism change the American economy?

A

-the economy grows

-the middle class expands

-wealth is in the hands of railroad owners

-the lower class is unhappy

6
Q

Panic of 1873

A

-caused by the railroads going into bankruptcy

-crushes the lower class, wealthy people are fine

-government does nothing to help

7
Q

result of the Panic of 1873

A

lower/middle-class workers want better working conditions but these do not get resolved

8
Q

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

A

worker issues do not get resolved so railroad workers strike, violent, chaotic

9
Q

result of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877

A

-railroads have the support of state, federal, and private troops so they put an end to it (shows who the government supports)

-workers realize they need to unionize and coordinate actions better

10
Q

Social Darwinism

A

survival of the fittest:

-all species and societies were governed by competition and only the best make it to the top

-the wealthiest in society had earned and deserved everything in American society

-the poor were poor because they did not work hard enough

11
Q

What is a Union?

A

people coming together to oppose business (most likely unfair wages)

12
Q

reason for many unions forming:

A

railroads, middlemen, and warehouses continue to charge more than market price which is also bad for farmers

13
Q

National Grange Movement

A

(not a labor union) a group that worked to increase the power of farmers

14
Q

Granger Laws

A

state laws that limited how much big organizations charged farmers

15
Q

Munn v. Illinois

A

state governments had power to control private industries from overcharging farmers

16
Q

the Knights of Labor

A

-skilled and unskilled workers focus on local-level issues

-showed if you pressure local politics you can most likely achieve these goals

-success around the country on a local level

17
Q

Haymarket Bombings

A

-Knights of Labor organized a labor movement/protest

-police attack, bombings, protesters killed

18
Q

How did the wealthy/upper class portray Unions?

A

as groups that wanted to overthrow the government.

19
Q

results of the Haymarket Bombing:

A

-the Knights of Labor are portrayed as agents of communism and are destroyed

-Unions around the country agree they need a new plan to help with unfair working conditions

20
Q

Andrew Carnegie

A

the OG Pittsburgh Steeler

-with steel, made his way up from the bottom, wanted money

-dominated the US and global steel market

-known for vertical integration

-against union labors

-sold his company to JP Morgan and then devoted himself to philanthropy

21
Q

Vertical Integration

A

a company controlling every stage of the industrial process (ex. mining, transporting, to finished product)

22
Q

John Rockefeller

A

Bezos before Bezos

-founded Standard Oil and turned it into a monopoly

-known for Horizontal Integration

-ruthless in business

-retired as the riches man in history, does not care about charity

23
Q

monopoly

A

a company that dominates a market so
much that it faces little to no competition from others

24
Q

Horizontal Integration

A

a process through which one company takes control of all its former competitors in a specific industry

25
Q

J.P. Morgan

A

the Banker

-consolidated and controlled major industries from banking, steel, and General Electric

-bailed out the US Treasury at one point with his supply of gold

-public hates him because they do not like one man running the money of the nation

-driven to own everything, became the face of greed and the Gilded Age

26
Q

Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis

A

democracy today is shaped by moving west, now that it is over, our democracy will change

-the thesis was later saw as a fact, defines American history of that time

27
Q

Indian Wars

A

-whites pushed west while fighting natives for the land (constant conflict of land, resources, bison)

-US government tries negotiations to protect

28
Q

Sand Creek Massacre, Wounded Knee, Battle of Little Big Horn

A

-natives trying to flee from state militia attacks because people are setting west

-goal of the militia is extermination of civilizations

29
Q

Reservation Policy

A

created by Andrew Jackson in the 1830s

puts natives on reservations but migration in the west makes this policy impossible to maintain

30
Q

Assimilationists

A

Protestants trying to make Natives Christian through boarding schools

(forcing them to be white, a failure and racist)

31
Q

Dawes Act 1887

A

ended Indian reservations, US Government gives land to Natives to “civilize them” (force them to be white)

failure, the good land went to white settlers

32
Q

Push Factors of Immigration

A

(negative factors)
-poverty of farmworkers in Europe
-overcrowding and joblessness in
cities
-religious persecution

33
Q

Pull Factors of Immigration

A

(positive attractions)
-ease of travel
-reputation of political and religious
freedom
-economic opportunities

34
Q

“Old” Immigrants

A

-from British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia

-high level of literacy and skill allowed them to develop to American society quicker

35
Q

“New” Immigrants

A

-from southern and eastern Europe (Italy, Greece)

-faced challenges in finding success in America

-Social Darwinism saw them as lower than the “Old” Immigrants

36
Q

Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

A

government outlaws the immigration of Chinese to America (because there were “too many in America”)

37
Q

Immigration causes ethnic neighborhoods to develop in cities. Big reason for majority of why Americans live in cities.

A

…..

38
Q

Tenement Apartments

A

landlords crammed over 4,000 people into one city block in small apartments

-disease, poor health, poverty

39
Q

Political Machines

A

a party organization, led by “boss”, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state

-they want the power and would get it through corruption

40
Q

Laissez Faire

A

“you do you”

that the less the government is involved in the economy, the better off business will be

41
Q

What did the government believe in at the time?

A

stick to the status quo

-laisses faire and social darwinism

42
Q

Interstate Commerce Act 1881

A

intention was to protect farmers from high railroad shipping of goods prices, extreme fail

43
Q

Sherman Antitrust Act

A

the goal was to break up monopolies and end trust, but proved too weak due to the Supreme Court

44
Q

Pendleton Act of 1881

A

citizens can compete for federal jobs without special treatment or the spoils system

45
Q

the Civil Service Commission

A

government agency under the Pendleton Act that oversaw how people would get federal jobs

46
Q

How was currency a political issue?

A

There was a question of if gold or silver backed our currency

47
Q

Who wanted silver to back the currency?

A

the lower class

-it could be borrowed at lower interest rates and easier to pay off loans

48
Q

Who wanted gold to back the currency?

A

bankers, investors, upper class

-if you had gold you were rich

49
Q

Result of gold backing the currency

A

it helps the upper class maintain their power in the government

50
Q

Tariffs

A

(tax on imported goods) helped big businesses and hurt farmers

51
Q

Republicans at this time

A

-pro-business
-middle class
-targets immigrants

52
Q

Democrats at this time

A

-“solid south”
-political machines
-believed in white supremacy

53
Q

Political Stalemate

A

(both sides do nothing)

no one helped the poor, man was on his own

54
Q

Omaha Platform and Populist Party

A

called for changes to the political and economic system

-silver backed the economy
-8 hour workday
-more power to the people

55
Q

Panic of 1893

A

turning point in politics

-20% unemployment

-causes people to support the populist party

-shows government does not care for the poor

56
Q

Coxey’s Army 1894

A

an unorganized protest in D.C. against the government, but it was dispersed

57
Q

1896 presidential election

A

money (William McKinley R.) vs. the people (William Jennings Bryan D.)

58
Q

Cross of Gold Speech

A

by William Bryan, talks about silver should back the economy, gives Bryan the candidate spot

59
Q

1896 election result

A

McKinley wins, but politics is changed.

(the people are more involved, good for populists)

60
Q

“New South”

A

the New South should embrace economic diversity and that the South will change, it doesnt

61
Q

What is happening in the South?

A

-still the poorest part of the country

-elites still have all the power

-racism prevents poor whites from working with poor blacks

62
Q

Lost Cause- Daughters of the Confederacy

A

63
Q

Lynching

A

know what it is

-wanted blacks to be at the bottom

64
Q

Jim Crowe Laws

A

makes segregation legal with the help of the Supreme Court

-businesses did not need to provide to African Americans

65
Q

Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

A

separate but equal did not violate the 14th Amendment

66
Q

Civil Rights Cases

A

federal government could do nothing about segregation (it was up to the states)

67
Q

Why was there a decrease in African Americans registered to vote?

A

literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses

68
Q

Ida B. Wells

A

(hero of her time) campaigned against Jim Crowe laws, lynching, racism

69
Q

Atlanta Compromise

A

created by Booker T. Washington: argues that blacks and whites southerners needed to work together to make the south prosper (many whites supported this)

70
Q

W.E.B. DuBois

A

demanded an end to segregation and equal rights to all Americans