The influence of others 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The influence of others 1 & 2 Deck (27):
1

another individual performing the same task

co-actor

2

a group of people watching an individual perform a task

audience

3

the phenomenon that the presence of co-actors or an audience affected performance on a variety of tasks

social facilitation

4

we learn appropriate behaviours by modeling and imitating the behaviour of others.

social learning theory

5

causes us to imagine movement that never occurred ; an optic illusion

autokinetic effect

6

the role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection

normative function

7

the role of others in providing information about an ambiguous situation

comparative function

8

group decision making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members

group polarization

9

a group decision making environment that occurs when group cohesiveness becomes so strong it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative options

groupthink

10

when each individual in a group see nobody responding in a given situation, they conclude that the situation is not an emergency

collective ignorance

11

in deciding whether we have to act, we determine that someone else in the group is more qualified

diffusion of responsibility

12

individuals seem to be less motivated when working in a group than when working alone

social loafing

13

in a group situation, the loss of a sense of personal responsibility and restraint

Deindividuation

14

well-reasoned, two-sided arguments; effective for academic audiences

central appeal

15

proposed that we don’t necessarily have a special insight into ourselves. We sometimes have to figure out who we are in a way that is similar to how we figure out who others are.

self-perception theory

16

It is an uncomfortable feeling to know that you did something for no reason

cognitive dissonance

17

has three components: the communication, message, and audience

persuasion

18

Start by asking for something completely unreasonable and then greatly scale back your request – a large request makes the smaller request seem all the more reasonable

door in the face

19

-a single initial agreement hiding a larger request
-Get your target to first agree to something small – following that, you can escalate the terms.

low ball

20

-First get the target to agree to something up front – once they’ve agreed, they’re committed- once they’re committed, they’re more likely to follow through
-gradual escalation of agreements

foot in the door

21

refers to an unselfish regard for the welfare of others, a willingness to put your neck on the line to help

altruism

22

we are expected to reciprocate when someone else treats us well. We tend to return favours.

the norm of reciprocity

23

as a member of society, we are expected to contribute to its welfare in a positive way.

the norm of social responsibility

24

that altruism results from empathy

empathy-altruism hypothesis

25

states that we help because we would feel distressed (and guilty) if we didn’t.

negative state relief model

26

involves personal interaction; are engaged in an attempt to make others dislike someone

rational aggression

27

involves behaviours that are directly confrontational; ex. hitting someone

hostile aggression