Thinking, Language, Intelligence Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Thinking, Language, Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking, Language, Intelligence Deck (90)
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1

cognition

all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

2

concept

mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, people

3

prototype

a mental imagee or best example of a category

4

algorithm

a rule of procedure that when followed properly will always lead to the correct solution

5

heuristic

shortcut or rule of thumb that allows to solve problems/make judgements more quickly - more prone to error

6

insight

a sudden realization of problem's solution

7

incubation effect

tendency to arrive at a solution after a period of time away from the problem

8

confirmation bias

tendency to seek information that confirms rather than disproves our ideas

9

fixation

inability to see a problem from a new perspective

10

mental set

tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, usually one that was successful in the past

11

functional fixedness

inability to see a new use for an object

12

creativity

the ability to produce new and valuble ideas

13

divergent thinking

generate multiple solutions to a problem

14

convergent thinking

narrow thinking to find single best solution

15

Kahneman's System 1

arrive at decisions quickly, intuitive and automatic

16

Kahenman's System 2

slower controlled processing, requires effort and analysis

17

many errors in thinking comes from

over reliance on System 1

18

representativeness heuristic

judging likelihood of something dependting on how well it matches of represents out prototypes (system 1 error)

19

availability heuristic

estimate the likelihood of something based on how easily it comes to mind; if more readily available, we judge it as more likely

20

anchoring heuristic

decision makers anchor on an initial number and fail to adjust sufficiently

21

sunk cost fallacy

tendency to invest more money or resources after some have already been invested

22

framing

the way in which something is worded or presented

23

overconfidence

tendency to be more confident than correct

24

belief perserverance

maintaining one's initial beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence; arguing for a point only strengthens it

25

belief bias

tendence for pre-existing beliefs to distort our logic

26

which psychologists are defined the different heuristics

Kahneman and Tversky

27

language

spoken, written, or signed words and combining them to communicate meaning

28

phoneme

smallest distinctive sound unit (40 in English)

29

morpheme

smallest unit that carries meaning

30

semantics

set of rules by which we derive from phonemes and morphemes