Thinking, Language, Intelligence Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Thinking, Language, Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking, Language, Intelligence Deck (90):
1

cognition

all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

2

concept

mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, people

3

prototype

a mental imagee or best example of a category

4

algorithm

a rule of procedure that when followed properly will always lead to the correct solution

5

heuristic

shortcut or rule of thumb that allows to solve problems/make judgements more quickly - more prone to error

6

insight

a sudden realization of problem's solution

7

incubation effect

tendency to arrive at a solution after a period of time away from the problem

8

confirmation bias

tendency to seek information that confirms rather than disproves our ideas

9

fixation

inability to see a problem from a new perspective

10

mental set

tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, usually one that was successful in the past

11

functional fixedness

inability to see a new use for an object

12

creativity

the ability to produce new and valuble ideas

13

divergent thinking

generate multiple solutions to a problem

14

convergent thinking

narrow thinking to find single best solution

15

Kahneman's System 1

arrive at decisions quickly, intuitive and automatic

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Kahenman's System 2

slower controlled processing, requires effort and analysis

17

many errors in thinking comes from

over reliance on System 1

18

representativeness heuristic

judging likelihood of something dependting on how well it matches of represents out prototypes (system 1 error)

19

availability heuristic

estimate the likelihood of something based on how easily it comes to mind; if more readily available, we judge it as more likely

20

anchoring heuristic

decision makers anchor on an initial number and fail to adjust sufficiently

21

sunk cost fallacy

tendency to invest more money or resources after some have already been invested

22

framing

the way in which something is worded or presented

23

overconfidence

tendency to be more confident than correct

24

belief perserverance

maintaining one's initial beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence; arguing for a point only strengthens it

25

belief bias

tendence for pre-existing beliefs to distort our logic

26

which psychologists are defined the different heuristics

Kahneman and Tversky

27

language

spoken, written, or signed words and combining them to communicate meaning

28

phoneme

smallest distinctive sound unit (40 in English)

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morpheme

smallest unit that carries meaning

30

semantics

set of rules by which we derive from phonemes and morphemes

31

syntax

rules used to order or comine words into sentences

32

receptive language

abiliy to comprehend speech - develops first

33

productive language

ability to produce words - develops later

34

motherese/parentese

how people talk to babies (or dogs)

35

babbling stage

spontaneously utter sounds that are unrelated to native speech (age 4 months)

36

when does babbling represent native language

9 months

37

one word stage

child speaks in one word, age 1

38

two word stage

child speaks in two word statemends at age 2

39

telegrpahic speech

child speaks like telegrams using mostly nouns and verbs -sign of starting to learn grammar

40

overgeneralization

applying grammatical rule to cases where it should not be used

41

Skinner's thoughts on language

nurture: language through operant conditioning

42

Chomsky's thoughts on language

nature: language acquisition device - all children born with ability to learn language and develop language in same way

43

Chomsky: surface structure

actual wording of sentence

44

Chomsky: deep structure

underlying meaning of sentence

45

linguistic determinism

language determines way we think; Whorf

46

what is a more accurate definiton of linguistic determinism

language influences way we think, vice versa

47

intelligence

ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

48

Spearman theory on intelligence

one general intelligence (g) that underlies our abilities in various areas

49

factor analysis

statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related test items (factors)

50

how factor analysis supports general intelligence

people who showed exceptional level in one area tended to score above average in other areas

51

Thurstone theory on intelligence

identified 7 clusters of intelligence (but his theory still indicates evidence of g)

52

Gardner's multiple intelligence theory

identified 8 relatively independent intelligences

53

gardner's ninth intelligence

existential intelligence: pondering life, death, and existence

54

savant syndrome

person has limited mental abilities but some exceptional skill

55

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

agrees that there are multiple intelligences, but only 3: analytic, creative, and practical

56

analytic intelligence

logical reasoning, academic problem solving

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creative intelligence

ability to generate novel ideas, design, and invent

58

practical intelligence

required for everyday tasks

59

emotional intelligence

ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

60

psychometrics

branck of psychology that is concerned with mental testing

61

aptitude test

designed to predict future performance

62

achievement test

desicned to assess what a person has learned

63

intelligence test

method for assesssing an individual's mental aptitude and compares them to others using numerical score

64

where/how did intelligence testing start

1900s France - pass law that requires children to attend school -- test to find which students were behind

65

Alfred Binet (and Theodore Simon)

designed the test for French schooling system to use; test level of development

66

mental age

chronological age for a typical level of performance

67

3 categories for the french students

moron, imbeciles, idiot

68

Binet's fear

the intelligence test would be used to measure innate intelligence - his fear came true

69

Lewis Terman

professor at Stanford who wanted to use Binet's test

70

Stanford Binet

redesigned test to match age norms in U.S. - one of more widely used standardized intelligence tests today

71

Stanford Binet introduced what into the U.S.

IQ - intelligence quotient

72

intelligence quotient

(mentalage/chronological age) x 100
not used anymore

73

what did Terman think about the IQ

it was a measure of innate intelligence - not what Binet wanted

74

how did the Standford Binet impact field of psychology

helped legitimize psychology as field of science

75

WAIS

most widely used intelligence test that contains verbal and performance sections

76

WISC and WPPSI

intelligence test for children and preschool kids

77

differences in WAIS score can indicate

cognitive strength OR weakness

78

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparing a person's performance with that of a pretested group (compared to others your age)

79

standard deviation of IQ score

15 (average score is 100)

80

Flynn effect

rise in intelligence test performance - must restandardize over timet

81

low end of IQ bell curve

70 or below - intellectual disability, difficult adapting to demands of everyday life

82

high end of IQ bell curve

score of 130 or above - giftedness

83

IQ tests before age 3

not very predictive except at extremes

84

crystallized intelligence

one's accumulated knowledge that increases with age

85

fluid intelligence

ability to reason speedily and abstractly - decrease begins age 20-30s

86

IQ scores of identical twins raised together

similar to one person taking same test twice (0.85 correlation)

87

how can environment effect cognitive development

decificient environment can have negative effect

88

heritability

extent to which differences can be attributed to genes (high heritability means differences are highly linked to difference in genes)

89

heritabiliity for intelligence

50-80%

90

what happens to heritability as ennvironment becomes more similar

increases