Module 5: Neural and Hormonal Systems Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Module 5: Neural and Hormonal Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 5: Neural and Hormonal Systems Deck (72):
1

Franz Gall

proposed phrenology

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phrenology

study of bumps on skull and relationship to mental abilities and character traits

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phrenology yielded the idea of

localization of function

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biological perspective

concerned with link between biology and behavior

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neuron

nerve cell

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dendrite

receives messages

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axon

sends messages

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terminal branches

ends of axon which sends message to dendrites of another neuron

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myelin sheath

fatty tissue that insulates, protects, and speeds up transmission

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spaces between myelin on which message travels

nodes of ranvier

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multiple sclerosis

loss of function due to deterioration of myelin

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glial cells

support, nourish, and protect neurons
play role in learning, thinking, memory

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neurocommunication is what type of process

electrochemical

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action potential

electrical charge that travels down an axon

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conditions of axon at rest

Na outside, K inside
more negative inside

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resting potential inside the axon

-70mV

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depolarization

when Na rushes into axon, making the inside less negative

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threshhold

level of stimulation required to trigger action potential (-55mV)

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refractory period

when neuron cannot fire

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Na/K pumps

return Na and K back to resting positions

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all-or-none response

excitatory signals must exceed inhibitory signals to minimal intensity to trigger action potential

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synapse

joining of axon of one neuron to dendrites of another

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neurotransmitters

chemicals released by vesicles in axon that travel across the synaptic cleft to allow neurons to communicate

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what happens to excess neurotransmitters

broken down by enzymes, drift away, reuptake

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reuptake

reabsorbed by sending neuron

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agonist drug

amplify effect of neurotransmitter
can bind to receptor site and act as NT, block reuptake, or facilitate release of NT

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antagonist drug

blocks effect of neurotransmitter
inhibit release of NT or occupies receptor site to block NT from binding

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acetylcholine (ACh)

usually excitatory
muscle contraction, learning, memory, sleep

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ACh present at every

neuromuscular junction

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deficiency of ACh linked to

Alzheimer's

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black widow spider venom acts as _____ to ACh

agonist (floods synapse with ACh)

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antagonists for ACh

botulin, curare

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dopamine

both excitatory and inhibitory
volunntary movement, learning, emotional arousal

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dopamine pathway is also the

reward pathway

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deficiency of dopamine linked to

Parkinson's disease

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excess of dopamine linked to

schizophrenia

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cocaine acts as _____ to dopamine

agonist, prevents reuptake

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serotonin

usually inhibitory
emotional arousal, mood, sleep, appetite

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deficiency of serotonin linked to

depression, eating disorders

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antagonist of serotonin

LSD

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SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression

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cocaine acts as _____ to serotonin

agonist, blocks reuptake

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norepinephrine

usually excitatory
arousal, learning, eating, mood; speeds up bodily processes

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imbalances in norepinephrine linked to

mood disorders

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agonists of norepinephrine

cocaine, amphetamines

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Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

major inhibitory NT

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deficiency in GABA linked to

seizures, tremors, insomnia

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agonist of GABA

alcohol

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glutamate

major excitatory NT involved in memory and learning

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excess glutamate linked to

migraines, seizures

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Pert and Snyder

traced radioactive morphine to receptors linked with moos and sensations

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endogenous morphine (endorphines)

neurotransmitters linked to pain control/pleasure

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agonists of endorphines

morphine, heroine

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central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

nerves

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PNS divided into

somatic and autonomic

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somatic nervous system

controls voluntary muscle movement

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autonomic nervous system

controls involuntary muscles movement and glands

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autonomic nervous system divided into

sympathetic and parasympathetic

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sympathetic nervous system

arousal, stress; fight or flight

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parasympathetic

calms; rest and digest

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sensory neurons

carry messages from body to brain (afferent)

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motor neurons

carry instructions from brain to body (efferent)

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interneurons

processes info between sensory and motor neurons

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neural networks

cluster of brain neurons

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neurons that fire together

wire together

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neurogenesis

production of new neurons

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reflex

automatic response to stimuli

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endocrine system

secretes hormones into bloodstream

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pituitary gland

controlled by hypothalamus, controls other glands

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pituitary gland produces

growth hormone, oxytocin

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adrenal glands

fight or flight response by sympathetic nervous system