Sensory and Perception Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Sensory and Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensory and Perception Deck (115):
1

sensation

stimulation of sense receptors and transmission of sensory info to CNS

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perception

process of organizing/interpreting sensory infor to give us meaningful experiences

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psychophysics

study of relationship between physical stimuli and psychological interpretation

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bottom-up processing

sensory receptors - brain - perception

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tup-down processing

experiences/expectations - perception

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absolute threshold

minimum level of stimulation to detect a stimulus 50% of the time

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subliminal messages

below absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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subliminal stimuli can

prime associations

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priming

activating certain associations which predisposes us to think or feel a certain way

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difference threshold

minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time

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Weber's law

thw two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion, not a constant amount

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signal detection theory

predicts how/when we detect a stimulus

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sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation

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how much of cortex is devoted to vision

25%

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visual capture

tendency for vision to dominate other senses - make world conform to what wew see

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light energy

stimulus for vision

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wavelength of light determines

color/hue

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amplitude of light determines

intensity/brightness

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cornea

transparent, outer, protective layer that begins to focus light

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pupil

hole in the eye which light enters

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iris

circular muscle membrane that regulates pupil size

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lens

protects eye and helps focus light

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retina

light-sensitive inner surface of eye that contains receptor rods and cones

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fovea

central focal point in retina around which cones cluster

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transduction

transferring of stimulus energies into neural impulses

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rodss are sesnsitive to

low light

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cones are sensitive to

color and detail; need light to work

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bipolar cells

cone is direct to bipolar; rods - multiple

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visual acuity

near sight / far sight

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feature detectors

nerve cells in brain that respond to specific features of sensory information

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parallel processing

proceses multiple aspects of visual scene at once

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3 primary colors of light

red, green, blue - additive color mixture

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trichromatic theory

retina has 3 different color receptors that can be stimulated in combinations fo produce perception of various colors

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dichromat

has two functioning cone types

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monochromat

has one functioning cone type

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opponent-process theory

color vision made possible by opposing retinal processes- individual cells that process two colors in the ganglion and thalamic level

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opposing retinal process pairss

red-green, yellow-blue, white-black

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after-images

visual sensation that continues after original stimlus has been removed

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stroop effect

word's meaning interferes with processing of other infor about the word

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grouping

perception tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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grouping depends on

closure, figure-ground-reversible-figure-ground, proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness

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depth perception

how far away things are

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binocular cues

depend on two eyes; retinal disparity and convergence

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retinal disparity

brain compares different images that each eye gets -greater the difference the closer the object

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convergence

brain receives feedback from muscless around the eye; the more the eyes are turned inward the closer the object

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monocular cues

depth cues from one eye

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relative size

distant objects look smaller than nearby objects of same size

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linear perspective

parallel lines converge in the distance

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interposition

if one objedt blocks view of another object we perceive it as being closer

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relative clarity/atmospheric perspectivee

less detail seen in objects that are far away

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relative height

objects higher in visual field are perceived as farther away

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texture gradient

closer objects perceived as having rougher texture

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light and shadow

gives us info about 3D shape of object

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relative motion/motion parallax

when moving, near objects move quickly, farther objects move slowly or "with you"

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stroboscopic movement

when still images are flashing in rapid succession, we perceive motion

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phi phenomenon

when lights near one another blink on and off quickly the light appears to be moving

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perceptual constancy

perceiving object as remaining the same even if light/angle of view that hits receptors changes

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distal stimulus

energy emitted by or reflected from the object - does not change

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proximal stimulus

pattern of energy that falls o your receptors- can change

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shape constancy

perceive objects as being same shape even though image on retina varies as object rotates

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lightness constancy

perceive object as having constant lightness when illumination changes

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color constancy

perceive objet as having constant color when illumination changes

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size constancy

perceive objects as staying the same size even though the images on your retina variess as a function of distance

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perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

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perceptual adaptation

our ability to adapt to a different visual field

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audition

sound produced by changes in air pressure that our ears detect and process

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pitch

expressed in Hz - frequency of wave
human ear sensitive to 20-20,000Hz

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loudness

units measured in decibels - amplitude

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pinna

shaped to help funnel sound waves ito auditory canal

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tympanic membrane

vibrates in response to sound waves and helps transmit vibrations to middle ear

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ossicles

middle ear bones - hammer/malleus, anvil/incus, stirrup/stapes

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function of ossicles

conduct vibrations from ear drum to inner ear

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oval window

membrane on cochlea which receives vibrations from ossicles

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structure of cochlea

basilar membrane inside cochlear fluid

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vibrations of oval window cause

fluid to move, basilar membrane to ripple, and hair cells to bend

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hair cells

receptors for hearing on basilar membrane

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loudness determined by

number of hair cells activatred

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place theory

different sound waves triffer hair cell on different places on basilar membrnae - high frequency near oval window, low near end of cochlea

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place theory explains how

we hesense pitches higher than 4000 Hz

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frequency theory

rate of nerce impulses traveling up auditory nerve is ame as frequency of the sound wave

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frequency theory is better at detecting

frequencies between 20-1000 Hz

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volley principle

cells alternate firing in rapid succession to make combined frequency of 1000-4000 Hz

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conduction hearing loss

damage to eardrum or ossicles

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sensorineural hearing loss

damage to hair cells or auditory nerve

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sound localization

determining where a sound is coming from based off of time lag betweeen waves hitting each ear

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sensory interaction

one sense can influence another

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McGurk effect

see someone mouth "ga" while hearing "ba" so perceive third syllable "da"

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skin senses

pressure, pain, temperature

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which skin sense has identifiable recepors

pressure

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pressure

something moves/deforms skin which triggers receptor cells

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temperature

temp change determines our perception - it is relative

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pain

unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that can result from tissue damage

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which two skin sense pathways overlap

tmperature and pain

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nocioreceptors

pain receptorss - no clear neural pathway

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gate control theory

spinal cord has neurological gate that either blocks pain signals or allows them to reach brain

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small nerve fibers

conduct pain signals - opens gate

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largee nerve fibers

conduct other snesory info - close gate by creating competing sensory info to block out pain

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pain control

endorphins, accupuncture, hypnosis

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pain is useful response because

it tells us that something is wrong

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gustation

teste

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6 receptors of taste

salty, sweet, bitter, sour, umami (savory), and oleogustus (fatty)

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flavor depends on

color, odor, texture, culture - more than just chemical

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taste buds located on

fungiform papilla - about 200 taste buds on each

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taste buds contain

taste cells (receptors)

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why is smell different from other senses

does not go through the thalamus, direct connection to the limbic system

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kinesthesis

sensing of position and movement of body parts

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brain receives kinesthesis info from

receptor cells in joints, tendons, and muscles

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kinesthesis interacts with

vision

109

vestibular sense

sense of body position and balance - tells us how body is oriented

110

semicircular canals

three fluid-filled structures

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vestibular sacs

contain fluid that moves - movement stimulates hair-like receptors

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vestibular senses work with

vision

113

synesthesia

sensory input from one sense also causes a snesory experience in another

114

extrasensory perception

telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition - perception without sensory input

115

parapsychology

study of mental phenomena excluded from orthodox scientific psychology