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A.P. Psychology > Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development Deck (86)
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1

developmental psychology

studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout life span

2

monozygotic twins vs. dizygotic twins

identical vs. fraternal

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embryo

2-9 weeks

4

fetus

9 weeks to birth

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teratogens

agents that can harm the embryo or fetus during prenatal development

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fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy

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rooting reflex

when touched on the cheek, baby will turn head in direction of touch and open mouth

8

moro reflex

when startled baby will fling out limbs then pull them back in

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babinski reflex

when baby's foot is stroked, toes will fan out then curl

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habituation

decrease in responding with repeated stimulation (infants get bored, look away sooner)

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pruning

lose unused connections between neurons

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maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly sequential changes in development resulting from genetic signals

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schema

concept or framework that we use to organize and interpret information

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Piaget's 2 proposed processes of schemas

assimilation and accomodation

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assimilation

interpreting new object/experience in terms of existing schemas

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accomodation

alter pre-existing schemas to incorporate new info

17

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

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sensorimotor stage

birth to 2 years; experience world through senses; stranger anxiety and object permanence

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object permanence

awareness that things continue to exist even when they cant be perceived, acquired around 8-9 months

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preoperational stage

2 to 6/7 years; representing things with words and images, using intuition rather than logical reasoning; pretend play, egocentrism

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thinking in preoperational stage is

1 dimensional, lack conservation

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conservation

prinsiple that properties remain same even when there are changes in shape/form of objects

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egocentrism

inability to see another's perspective

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and other's mental states

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concrete operational stage

age 7 to 11 years; thinking logically about concrete events, grasping analogies and performing arithmetical operations; has conservations

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formal operational stage

abstract reasoning, abstract logic, potential for mature morals

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criticisms of piaget's stages

piaget underestimated kid's abilities, stage theories flawed because development is continuous

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Vgotsky

kids think in words and use them to problem solve - how they learn in the context of social commmunication - scaffolding

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scaffolding

other students can help pull a lower level kid up to their level

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kohlberg's stages of moral development

preconventional morality, conventional, post-conventional