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A.P. Psychology > Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development Deck (86):
1

developmental psychology

studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout life span

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monozygotic twins vs. dizygotic twins

identical vs. fraternal

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embryo

2-9 weeks

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fetus

9 weeks to birth

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teratogens

agents that can harm the embryo or fetus during prenatal development

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fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy

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rooting reflex

when touched on the cheek, baby will turn head in direction of touch and open mouth

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moro reflex

when startled baby will fling out limbs then pull them back in

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babinski reflex

when baby's foot is stroked, toes will fan out then curl

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habituation

decrease in responding with repeated stimulation (infants get bored, look away sooner)

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pruning

lose unused connections between neurons

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maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly sequential changes in development resulting from genetic signals

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schema

concept or framework that we use to organize and interpret information

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Piaget's 2 proposed processes of schemas

assimilation and accomodation

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assimilation

interpreting new object/experience in terms of existing schemas

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accomodation

alter pre-existing schemas to incorporate new info

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Piaget's stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

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sensorimotor stage

birth to 2 years; experience world through senses; stranger anxiety and object permanence

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object permanence

awareness that things continue to exist even when they cant be perceived, acquired around 8-9 months

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preoperational stage

2 to 6/7 years; representing things with words and images, using intuition rather than logical reasoning; pretend play, egocentrism

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thinking in preoperational stage is

1 dimensional, lack conservation

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conservation

prinsiple that properties remain same even when there are changes in shape/form of objects

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egocentrism

inability to see another's perspective

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and other's mental states

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concrete operational stage

age 7 to 11 years; thinking logically about concrete events, grasping analogies and performing arithmetical operations; has conservations

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formal operational stage

abstract reasoning, abstract logic, potential for mature morals

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criticisms of piaget's stages

piaget underestimated kid's abilities, stage theories flawed because development is continuous

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Vgotsky

kids think in words and use them to problem solve - how they learn in the context of social commmunication - scaffolding

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scaffolding

other students can help pull a lower level kid up to their level

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kohlberg's stages of moral development

preconventional morality, conventional, post-conventional

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level 1 preconventional morality

right/wrong determined by reward/punishment

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level 1 stage 1

punishment and obedience - wrong behavior

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level 1 stage 2

rewards, self interest - right behavior

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level 2 conventional morality

views of others matter, avoid blame, seek approval

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level 2 stage 3

good intentions, behaving to conform to good behavior

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level 2 stage 4

obedience to authority, importance of doing one's duty

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level 3 post conventional morality

abstract notions of justive, rights can override laws

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level 3 stage 5

difference between moral and legal right, recognition that rules should sometimes be broken

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level 3 stage 6

individual principles of conscience; universal ethical principles - follow own moral code in all situations no matter what

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because emotions and gut feeling can trump logic in moral development, this indicates that

the frontal lobe isn't the only part of brain involved in decision making

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criticisms of kohlberg

may not predict accurately how people behave, cultural bias (level 3 favors individualistic society, communal societies may be different, but no less moral)

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attachment

close emotional bond between infant and parent

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harlow's monkey studies

body contact is more important than food for attachment

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imprinting

process in which young animals follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see/hear - mostly birds; happens during critical period

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lorenz

got baby geese to imprint on him

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infant attachment styles

bowlby and ainsworth

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stranger anxiety

fear of strangers

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separation anxiety

distress when parents leave

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ainsworth's strange situation

observed interaction between infant and mother

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secure attachment

parents is safe base from which to explore; will explore comfortably wen parent if present
distressed when parents leave, calm when returns

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insecure attachment

avoidant attachment and axious attachment

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avoidant attachment

may resist being held by parents and will explore new environments

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anxious/ambivalent attachment

resistant to caregiver, less likely to explore, cling to mother, upset when mother leaves, not easily calmed upon return

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity (largely due to genetic factors)

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easy babies

easy going, happy, regular eating and sleeping cycles

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slow-to-warm-up babies

eventually become easy babies

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difficult babies

irritable, unpredictable, fearful

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no-single-category babies

lol

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Jerome Kagan infant study

temperament differences tended to persist; attachment styles can extend to other relationships later in life; attachment effected by inborn temperament

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parenting styles

baumrind - authoritarian, permissive, authoritative

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authoritarian

have rules and ecpect them to be followed; obedience - leads to lower self-esteem and less social competence

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permissive

parents make few demands if any, little punishment - leads to emotional control problems

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authoritative

set reasonable rules and explain them; firm but fair - kids have higher self esteem and social competance

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uninvolved parenting style

parent is emotional withdrawn and inattentive

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erikson's stages of psychosocial development

others affect how we turn out

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erikson: infancy to 1 year

infants develop basic trust if needs are dependably met (trust v. mistrust)

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erikson: 1 to 3 years

toddlers learn to do things for themself or doubt their abilities (autonomy v. shame)

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erikson: 3 to 6 years

preschoolers learn to initiate tasks or feel guilty about their efforts to be independent (initiative v. guilt)

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erikson: 6 years to puberty

children learn pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior (industry/competance v. inferiority)

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erikson: teen to 20s

teens work at refining sense of self, testing roles, forming a single identity or they become confused about who tey are (identity v. role confusion)

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erikson 20s to 40s

young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated (intimacy v. isolation)

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erikson 40s to 60s

middle aged adults discover sense of contributing to the world, usually through family or work, or they may feel lack of purpose (generativity v. stagnation)

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erikson 60s and up

reflecting on life, older adult may feel sense of satisfaction or failure (integrity v. despair)

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G stanley hall

first to study adolescence, first APA president - period of storm and stress

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marcia's identity statuses

form identity through crisis and commitment

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high crisis, high commitment

identity achieved (crisis past)

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low crisis, high commitment

foreclosure stasus, commitment without thought

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low crisis, low commitment

identity diffusion, absence of struggle for identity

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high crisis, low commitment

moratorium, midst of crisis

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brain development

frontal lobe is last to mature, emotional limbic system is wired for puberty before frontal lobe - understand consequences but give more weight to potential thrills

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emerging adulthood

about 18 to mid twenties between adolescence and fully independent adulthood

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physical development in adulthood

peek in natural physical abilities in 20s

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menopause

biological changes that occur as woman's reproductive abilities decline and cease

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alzheimer's

progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities

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neurocognitive disorders (NCDs)

acquired disorders marked by cognitive deficits

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elizabeth keller ross

stages of grief, can be applied to any great loss don't always go through all stages, can go in any order: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance