Memory Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (71):
1

memory

retention of info over time through process of encoding, storage, and retrieval

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encoding

getting info into the memory system

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storage

maintenance of encoded info over time

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retrieval

getting info out of storage

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visual encoding

encoding of images

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example of visual encoding

method of loci

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method of loci

associating new things with familiar locations (memory palace)

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acoustic encoding

encoding of sound

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semantic encoding

encoding of meaning

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automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental info (space, time)

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effortful processing

encoding requires attention and conscious effort

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rehearsal

conscious repetition of info (effortful processing)

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ebbinghaus and rehearsal

more time her rehearsed on day one, less time it took to relearn on day two

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maintenance rehearsal

rehearse to store info in memory

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elaborative rehearsal

make connection between new info and what you already know

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spacing effect

we remember info better when rehearsal is distributed over period of time

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levels of processing

shallow and deep

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sensory memory

initial brief recording of sensory info

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two types of sensory memory

iconic and echoic

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iconic memory

brief sensory memory of visual stimuli

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what did george sperling's experiment prove about iconic memory

it is very brief, but also very detailed

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echoic memory

brief sensory memory of auditory stimuli (3-4 seconds)

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short term memory

hold a limited amount of items for a brief period of time

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capacity of STM

7 plus or minus 2, for 2-30 seconds

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chunking

organizing items into familiar manageeable units

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interference

can hold info in STM unless new info comes in

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long term memory

relatively permanent and limitless storage of info

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parts of LTM

explicit and implicit

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explicit memory (declarative)

memory of facts and experiences

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types of explicit memory

semantic and episodic

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semantic memory

knowledge of facts, word meanings

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episodic memory

knowledge of events and personal experiences

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hippocampus

involved in memory consolidation

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memory consolidation

neural storage of a long term memory

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amnesia

memory loss

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retrograde amnesia

inability to retrieve info from past

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anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories (HM, Jimmie)

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implicit memory (nondeclarative)

retention of learned skills or procedures and classical conditioned associations

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parts of brain involved with implicit memories

cerebellum and basal ganglia (for muscle memory)

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long term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation - neural basis for learning and memory

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stress and memory

stress can cause release of hormones which help make lasting memory

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flashbulb memories

clear memory of an emotionally significant event

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what brain structure if involved with flashbulb memory

amygdala

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recall

reproducing info previously learned

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serial position effect

tendency to recall first and last items in a list best

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primacy effect

best recall for items at beginning of list

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recency effect

best recall for items at end of list

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recognition memory

identify previously learned information

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testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving rather than just rehearsing or rereading

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retrieval cues

bits of info that can lead us to target info

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prospective memory

remembering to perform a planned action of intention at the appropriate time

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hierarchies

how info is connected - serves as retrieval cue

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context effects

remember info better when back in the situation in which you learned it

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state dependent memory

info we learn in a particular physiological or emotional state is best recalled when we are back in that state

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mood congruent memory

recall memories that match current mood

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atkinson and shiffrin model of memory

sensory input - sensory memory - attention - STM - storage - LTM

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baddeley model of memory

working memory - conscious processing of new info and info from LTM

visual info, episodic memory, and auditory info work separately to contribute to integrated info

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highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM)

aility to accurately recall events and personal experiences including days/dates on which they occured

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eidetic memory

ability to maintain exact detailed visual memories over long period of time; more common in children - perhaps associated with language

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next-in-line effect

encoding failure due to other thoughts

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storage decay

ebbinghaus-forgetting curve: forgetting is initially rapid, but it levels off

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retrieval failure

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: temporary, inability to retrieve info

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proactive interference

old info disrupts recall of new info

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retroactive interference

new info disrupts recall of old info

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memories are reconstructed each time they are recalled,meaning

memories are vulnerable to distrotion

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reconsolidation

store "new" altered memory

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misinformation effect

misleading info becomes incorporated into memory of event

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experiment with misonformation effect

loftus car crash experiment - show two groups same video of car crash, ask one group using word "smash" the other group "hit" - "smash" reported faster speeds

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source amnesia

attributing an event experienced, heard about, or read about to the wrong source

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false memories - loftus shopping mall experiment

asked students "do you remember..." with real experiences and one fake one - they reported remembering the fake experience and created a false memory from the question

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imagination

kids are very susceptible to false memories