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A.P. Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (72)
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1

learning

relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

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behaviorism

psychology focus on observable behavior (not the mind)

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associative learning

linking one event or stimulus with another

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conditioning

process by which associations are learned - training your brain

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classical conditioning

associating neutral stimuli with stimuli that produce involuntary responses - neutral stimuli produces that response

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pavlov

trained dog to salivate at sound of a bell

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

triggers automatic unlearned response

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unconditioned response (UR)

unlearned, natural response to a stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

neutral stimulus that is paired with a US, then triggers a CR

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conditioned response (CR)

learned response to previously neutral stimulus - always same as UR, but has a different stimulus

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acquisition

initial learning stage of associations (CR first elicited by CS)

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biological predisposition to association

more readily make some associations versus others (food-nausea rather than sound-nausea)

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delayed timing

CS is presented and continues at least until US is presented

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trace timing

CS is presented and stopped before presentation of US

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simultaneous timing

CS and US presented at same time

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backward timing

US is presented before CS (taste aversions)

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contiguity model (pavlov)

conditioning will occur whenever CS and US are paired (learn associations when close in time)

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contigency model (rescorla and wagner)

CS must reliably predict US

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blocking

prior experience with one stimulus prevents later conditioning to a second stimulus

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higher-order conditioning

pair CS with new neutral stimulus

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cognition in conditioning

knowing the response

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extinction

decrease in CR when US no longer paired with CS

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spontaneous recovery

reappearance of weakened CR after extinction (and a break)

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generalization

stimuli similar to CS elicit CR

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example of generalization

Little Albert - Watson conditioned fear response with small furry objects

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discrimination

learned ability to distinguish between CS and other stimuli

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counter conditioning

technique used in therapy to substitute new response for a maladaptive one through conditioning procedures

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two types of counter conditioning

exposure therapy and aversion therapy

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exposure therapy

expose person to fear-evoking stimulus

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two types of exposure therapy

flooding and systemic desensitization