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A.P. Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (72):
1

learning

relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

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behaviorism

psychology focus on observable behavior (not the mind)

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associative learning

linking one event or stimulus with another

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conditioning

process by which associations are learned - training your brain

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classical conditioning

associating neutral stimuli with stimuli that produce involuntary responses - neutral stimuli produces that response

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pavlov

trained dog to salivate at sound of a bell

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

triggers automatic unlearned response

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unconditioned response (UR)

unlearned, natural response to a stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

neutral stimulus that is paired with a US, then triggers a CR

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conditioned response (CR)

learned response to previously neutral stimulus - always same as UR, but has a different stimulus

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acquisition

initial learning stage of associations (CR first elicited by CS)

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biological predisposition to association

more readily make some associations versus others (food-nausea rather than sound-nausea)

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delayed timing

CS is presented and continues at least until US is presented

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trace timing

CS is presented and stopped before presentation of US

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simultaneous timing

CS and US presented at same time

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backward timing

US is presented before CS (taste aversions)

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contiguity model (pavlov)

conditioning will occur whenever CS and US are paired (learn associations when close in time)

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contigency model (rescorla and wagner)

CS must reliably predict US

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blocking

prior experience with one stimulus prevents later conditioning to a second stimulus

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higher-order conditioning

pair CS with new neutral stimulus

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cognition in conditioning

knowing the response

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extinction

decrease in CR when US no longer paired with CS

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spontaneous recovery

reappearance of weakened CR after extinction (and a break)

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generalization

stimuli similar to CS elicit CR

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example of generalization

Little Albert - Watson conditioned fear response with small furry objects

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discrimination

learned ability to distinguish between CS and other stimuli

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counter conditioning

technique used in therapy to substitute new response for a maladaptive one through conditioning procedures

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two types of counter conditioning

exposure therapy and aversion therapy

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exposure therapy

expose person to fear-evoking stimulus

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two types of exposure therapy

flooding and systemic desensitization

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flooding

presents stimulus until fear response extinguished

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systemic desensitization

associate a pleasant relaxed state with gradual increase in fearful stimulus

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aversion therapy

replace a favorable response with a negative one; learn aversive response to harmful stimulus

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operant conditioning

type of associative learning in which behavior is altered by its consequences

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operant behavior

behavior that operates on environment

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thorndike's law of effect

behavior with positive consequence more likely to occur; behavior with negative consequence less likely to occur

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operant conditioning is different from classical because

response is voluntary, not automatic; associate a behavior and a response, not a behavior and a stimulus

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skinner's box

electrically charged floor, lights, speaker, food dispenser

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cumulative recorder

records responses (like an EEG sort of)

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reinforcement

anuything that increases frequency of behavior

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positive reinforcement

adding stimulus after response to increase likelihood of that response

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negative reinforcement

remove stimulus to increase likelihood of behavior

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two types of negative reinforcement

escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning

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primary reinforcer

inherently reinforcing stimuli (food, warmth, air, sleep)

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secondary reinforcer

get reinforcing power because associated with primary reinforcer (money, grades)

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immediate vs. delayed

conditioning works best when reinforcer comes right after behavior

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continuous reinforcement

reinforce behavior every time it occurs;
good for learning new behavior, bad for maintaining it

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partial reinforcement

behavior only reinforced sometimes
good for maintaining behavior, bad for learning it

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fixed ratio

response is reinforced after certain number of responses

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variable ratio

response is reinforced after unknown number of responses

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fixed interval

reponse is reinforced after certain amount of time

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variable ratio

response is reinforced after unknown amount of time

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fixed interval causes what type of cumulative record

scallop effect

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which type of reinforcement is most resistant to extinction

variable ratio and interval

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punishment

anything that decreases likelihood of a behavior

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positive punishment

adding stimulus to decrease a behavior

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negative punishment

removing stimulus to decrease a behavior

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extinction (operant)

response decrease when reinforcement stops

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spontaneous recovery (operant)

temporary recovering in rate of responding

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generalization (operant)

performing a reinforced behavior in another situation

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discrimination (operant)

organism learns that certain responses will be reinforced but not others

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shaping

reinforcers gradually guide actions toward a desired end behavior

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biological predisposition (operant)

instinctive drift - taught behavior will drift back towardss normal, natural behavior

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cognition (operant)

cognitive map - mental representation of layout of environment -Tullman

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latent learning

learning that occurs but it is not demonstrated until there is an incentive to do so

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applied behavior analysis

reinforce behavior and ignore or punish bad behaviors

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token economy

people earn tokens for exhibiting desirable behavior which can later be exchanged for privileges

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observational learning

learning by observing others

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albert bandura

social cognitive learning with Bobo doll study

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bobo doll study

kids who watched adults act aggresively towards doll were more likely to act aggresively towards the doll

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modeling (obesrvational learing)

process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing an action or seeing the action performed