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A.P. Psychology > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (72):
1

social psychology

examines how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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attributions theory

we explain others' behavior by creditin the situation or person's disposition

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internal dispositional attributions

it's the persons fault

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external attributions

it was the situation

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fundamental attribution error

tendency for observers to underestimate the impace of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition when explaining another's behavior

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actor-observer bias

tendency to attribute our behavior to the situation and another's behavior to disposition, unless we are explaining our successes

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just-world phenomenon

tendency to beliece the world is a fair place, so people get what they deserve and deserve what they get

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Harold Kelley's covariation model

people make attributions base on 3 factor that vary with behavior (consistency, distinctness, and conensus)

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consistency

how similar one acts in similar situations

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distinctiveness

how dfifferent the behavior is compared to other situations

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consenses

how others have responded in the situation

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internal attributions in kelley's model have

high consistency, low distinctiveness, low consensus

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attitude

feeling often influence by beliefs that predisposes us to act in a certain way

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foot-in-the door phenomenon

tendency for people who have first agreed to a small requrest to later comply with a larger one

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door-in=-the-face phenomenon

following up an outrageous request with a reasonable one

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cognitive dissonance

theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when our thoughts are inconsistent with our other thoughts/actions - Leon Festinger

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mere exposure effect

more one is exposed to something, more one will come to like it

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persuasion central route

the main message causes lasting change in attitude of a motivated audience

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persuasion peripheral route

outside clues that cause temporary change in attitude in an unmotivated audience

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spotlight effect

tendency to think that other people are watching us more cllosely than they actually are

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chameleon effect

unconsciously mimc other's expressions, posture, tone of voice

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types of social influence

conformity, obedience, compliance

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conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

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Solomon Asch

matching line test, people conformed about 1/3 of the time

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conformity increases when

one is made to feel incompetent, at least 3 people in the group, the group is unanimous, if one admires the group status

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normative social influence

influence resulting from desire to gain approval or avoid rejection

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informational social influence

influence resulting from willingness to accept others' opinions about reailtuy

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obedience

change in behavior due to order or request from an authoratative figure - rectal ear ache

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Stanley Milgram

teacher/student shock experiment, 65% of participants continued to 450V despite the student protesting

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obedience highest when

authority figure is close by, study affiliated with prestige, victims are far away, no one else disobeyed

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ethics in milgram's study

deemed as unethical (now) because he did not protect the participants from discomfort

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compliance

change in behavior due to a direct request (not from an authority figure)

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implicit compliance

ad for a product (requst not directly state but rather implied)

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explicit compliance

asking for a favor

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group influence

how presence of others affect one's behavior

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social facilitation

improved performance in presence of others unless it is a new/difficult task (social impairment)

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social loafing

tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when in a group versus when alone, especially when everyone share equal benefits

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deindividuation

loss of self-awareness/restraint that occurs in group situations that creates arousal and anonymity

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zimbardo's stanford prison experiment

showed power of the situation (role playing, attitudes followed actions, obedience) and deindividuation - another now unethical study

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group polarization

tendency for groups to make decisions or have opinions that are more extreme than if members are acting alone

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groupthink

desire for harmony and group consensus overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives in a decision-making group - creates a false sense of unanimity

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antisocial relations

bad for society - prejudice, aggression

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prejudice

invovled unfair or negative attitude towards a group and its members, usuallyt involves beliefs, emotions, and predisposition to act

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stereotypes

generalized beliefs about a group of people, sometimes accurate but often over generalized

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discrimination

unfair behavior toward a group and its members

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Us vs. them mindset

ingroup is us, outgroup is ifferent from us

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ingroup bias

tendency to favor one's ingroup

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ethnocentrism

belief that one's culture is superior to others

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outgroup homogeneity

all people of outgroup are the same

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other-race effect

tendency to recall faces of one's own group more accurately than faces of other races

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importance of categorization

suggests people cant help but form stereotypes

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scapegoat theory

theory that prejudice often an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

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aggression

behavior intended to jhurt someone physically or emotionally

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frustration-aggression principle

idea that when our goals are blocked this causes frustration which leads to anger and aggression

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prosocial relations

altruism, attraction

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altruism

unselfish regard for walfare of others - Kitty Genovese

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bystander effect

tendency for bystanders to be less likely to helop if others are present

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which study tested the bystander effect

Darley and Latane smoke-filled room effect

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decision making model

at each stage, presence of others makes one less likely to help (notice someething, interpret it as emergency, assume responsibility for helping)

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diffusion of responsibility

more people present, less responsibilty per individual

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more likely to help when

person appears to need it, person is similar, we observe someone ele helping, we are not rushing, we are in a good mood

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social exchange theoruy

theory that social behavior is an exchange process - maximize benefits and minimize cost

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reciprocity norm

expectation that people will help those who help them

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social responsibility norm

expectation that people will help those who are dependent and in need of help

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attraction

proximity - like people you are close to

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physical attractiveness

halo effect - associate good looking people with other good traits

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other component of attraction

similarity and reciprocity

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conflict

perceived incompatability of actions, foals, or ideas

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social trap

parties in conflict harm the collective well by pursuiong theor own self-interest

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mirror-image perceptions

mtuual views often help by parties in conflict - they are evil and we are erthical and just retaliating

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peace

contact and cooperation

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superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their mutual cooperation (sherif camp study)