How can we apply motivation practises to the design of rewards?
- Design reward systems with extrinsic rewards
- Design jobs with intrinsic rewards
- Enourage self motivation (self-leadership)
What is traditional job design?
Frederick Winslow Taylor & Scientific Management
Emphasises efficiency and producitivty improvement through:
- Functional specifiliation (vertical and horizontal) and work simplification.
- Use of automation.
- Close external monitoring & control.
- Clear, direct effort-reward relationships.
What are the advantages to traditional job design?
- Less time changing tasks
- Jobs mastered quickly
- Low training costs
- Low salaries
- Easier replacement of workers
- Increased likelihood of automating tasks
What are the disadvantages to traditional job design?
- Discontentment pay
- Lower quality
- Lower motivation
What is the job characteristics model?
Identifies five job characteristics, where under the right conditions, will lead to more motivated and satisfied employees, by increasing critical psychological states.
What are the five job characteristics?
- Skill variety
- Task identity
- Task significance
Explain task variety in the five job characteristics model.
Refers to the use of different skills and talents to complete a variety of activities.
Explain task identity in the five job characterstic model.
Degree to which the job completes a whole or identifiable piece of work.
Explain task significance in the five job characterstic model
The degree to which the job is percieved to affect the organisation or greater society.
Explain feedback in the five job characteristics model
Degree to which employees can percieve their own performance / results
What are the critical psychological states in the job characteristics model?
- Experienced meaningfulness.
- Experienced responsibility.
- Knowledge of results.
What are outcomes in the job characteristics model?
- Intrinsic work motivation.
- Growth Satiscation. (caused by experienced meaningfulness)
- Job satisfaction. (caused by autonomy)
- Work Effectivness. (caused by feedback)
Show the flow of job characteristics to outcomes
How can jobs be designed to be motivating?
From content theories:
- People value opportunities to satisfy higher order needs
From expectancy thoery
- Succesful performance on jobs that are high in autonomy, feedback and skill variety builds feeling of self-efficacy
What is intrinsic motivation?
Where performance on jobs that are designed well generates its own motivation and rewards
What are some examples of job redesigning?
- Job rotation
- Job enlargement
- Job enrichment
What are some job enrichment strategies?
- More autonomy, feeling of control and self-efficacy.
Forming natural work units
- Completing an entire task.
- Assigning employees to specific clients.
Establishing client relationships
- Employees put in direct contact with clients.
What are some principles of work redesign?
- Leave methods of working to emplyee discretion
- Combine interdependent tasks into the one job
- Provide employees with the information they need to make decicsions
- Ensure employees have contact with benificiaries of their work to maximise percieved significance
- Ensure that selection, training and payment are congruent with the work design
- Ensure there is feedback on performance, from the task istelf and from the supervisor. Provide internal and external customer feedback to employees.
- Reguarly review and evaluate work design.
What is self leedership?
"The process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task"
Includes concepts/practices from:
- Goal setting
- Social learning thoery
- Sports psychology
What are the five elements of self-leadership?
- Personal goal setting
- Constructive thought patterns
- Designing natural rewards
What are some constructive thought patterns?