What types of leadership models perspectives are there?
Influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organisations of which they are members
Outline the trait/competency perspective.
Leaders behave differently, and are more or less effective, because of relatively stable personal characteristics such as personality, charisma or intelligence.
What traits are considered in the competency perspective of leadership?
- Drive (to achieve).
- Desire to lead.
- Honesty and integrity.
- Self confidence.
- Job-relevent knowledge.
What do modern theories of intelligence include?
- Analytical reasoning ability.
- Social intelligence.
- Emotional intelligence.
What is the followers view of leadership traits?
What are some problems with the trait approach?
- Traits only explain a part of what leaders do.
- Training can influence behavior.
- Organisations only have a limited pool of leaders.
Outline the behavioral perspective.
- Group members have two roles that must be furfilled for effective group functioning.
- Task oriented role
- Socio-emotional role
- Leaders use behaviors from these two roels to assist followers, in an appropriate combination to the situation.
- Task oriented role
- Socio-emotional role
List the behavioral models.
What is leadership reward behavior?
- Part of behavioral leadership perspective.
- Extent to which the leader provides rewards contingent on employee goal achievement to shape behavior
- Is employee and task orientated
What is the transformational leadership model?
Describes a set of behaviors and processes needed to bring about commitment to organisational goals. Very important when change is needed.
What are the key elements of transformational leadership?
- Creating a strategic vision.
- Communicating the vision.
- Modeling the vision.
- Building commitment.
What is transactional leadership?
- Describes behaviors that help orginasationa achieve their objectives more efficiently.
What are the processes in transformational leadership.
- Leader behavior:
- Effects on followers and work groups:
Imagine the authentic leadership model diagram
What are some problems with the leader behavior perspective?
- Failure to recognize different ways of being task orientated.
- Sometimes transformational leadership is unnecessary.
Describe the contingency perspective.
Which leadership traits and behaviors are effetive depends on the situation face by the leader.
List the contingency models.
- Fiedler’s contingency model
- Path-goal theory
- Situational leadership theory (Hersey & Blanchard)
- Substitutes for leadership
What is the LPC model? Explain it.
The least prefered coworkers model.
- People with relationship-oriented leadership style will describe their least-preferred coworker in relatively favourable terms.
- Hi LPC leaders will be effective in some situations
What is fiedlers model?
- Relates natural leadership style to situations where the leader will be effective.
- Says that relationship-oriented leaders will be good when there is good relations with coworkers and task structure and position power is low.
- Otherwise task-orientated leaders are good.
- Not well supported in the data due to poorly definined values and surveys.
What is path goal theory?
Derives from expectancy theory.
Says that leaders can have different styles to direct situations.
- Directive (hi task, lo person).
- Supportive (hi person, lo task).
- Participative (hi person, hi task).
- achievement (hi task? hi person?)
What factors are contingencies in path-goal theory?
- Skills and experience.
- Locus of control.
- Task structure.
- Team dynamics.
What are the measures of leadership effectiveness in path-goal theory?
- Motivated employees.
- Satisfied employees.
- Leader acceptance.
Show how the employee contingencies in path goal theory relate to the leadership behaviors.
Show how the environemental contingencies in path goal theory relate to the leadership behaviors.
What are the limitations of Path-Goal theory?
- People still think hi task, hi person (i.e. achievement orientated) is a univerally effective style.
- Too complex to use?
What are some substitues for leadership?
- Enriched job design.
- Peers and coworkers.
- Formalisation of rules.
What is the romance view of leadership?
- That when firms perform well, leaders are drastically 'over valued'.
What are the values of ethical leadership?
Show the followership styles diagram.