Topic 20: Organisational Change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 20: Organisational Change Deck (15):

Outline the force field analysis model.

  • Developed by Kurt Lewin.
  • Driving forces, external or internal push organisations towards change.
  • Restraining forces are employee behaviors that resist or block the change process.


Imagine the force field analysis diagram.

A image thumb

Outline what restraining forces are.

  • Resistance to change.
  • Comes in many forms: complaints, passive noncompliance, quitting.
  • Resistance can be viewed as a resource.
    • Symptoms of problems in the change process.
    • Constructive criticism.
    • Form of a voice.


Why do people resist change?

  • Direct costs.
  • Saving face.
  • Fear of the unknown.
  • Breaking routines.
  • Incongruent organisational systems.
  • Incongruent team dynamics.


How can an urgency for change be created?

  • Informing employees about driving choices.
  • Most difficult when organisation is doing well.
  • Customer driven change.
  • Otherwise use persuasive influence and vision.


How can resistance to change be minimised?

  • Communication.
  • Learning.
  • Involvement.
  • Stress Mitigation.
  • Negotiation.
  • Coercion.


Why is refreezing important in organisational change?

Because firms will revert to previous behaviors and practices otherwise.


What are change agents? What must they do?

Anyone who posses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the chagne effort.

They must:

  • Develop the change vision.
  • Communicate the vision.
  • Act consistently with the vision.
  • Build commitment to the vision.


What is the action research approach?

Action: Achieve the goal of change.

Research: Testing application of concepts.


  • Open systems perspective.
  • Highly participative process.
  • Data-driven, problem-oriented process.


Show the action research process diagram.

A image thumb

What is the appreciative inquiry approach?

  • Frames change around positive and possible future, rather then traditional problem focus.
  • Application of positive organisational behavior.


Show the four-d model of appreciative inquiry.

A image thumb

What are large group inteventions? What are their limitations?

  • Interventions that involve "the whole system"


  • Limited opportunity to contribute.
  • Risk that a few people will dominate.
  • Focus on common ground may hide differences.
  • Generates high expectations about ideal future.


What is the parallel learning structure approach?

  • Highly participative social structures.
  • Groups that run parralel to the formal hierarchy to develop new ideas and solutions.
  • Members representation across formal hierarchy.
  • Sufficiently free from firm's constraints.