What are the models & theories that we explicitly use in the area of perception?
- Selective Attention Model
- The Attribution Model
- Social Identity Theory
- The Self Furfilling Prophecy
- Johari Window
Show the selective attention model
What are the key points of social identity theory?
- The theory that people define themselves in terms of one or more social identities, either as a member of a social category or a group, in contrast to members of other groups.
- Choice of social groups / categories is hierarchical, in terms of perceived status
- People strive to maintain high self-esteem through processes of social comparison
What does social identity-based perceptual processes lead to?
- Conflict and factionalism within organizations.
- -> explains why restructures and mergers frequently fail.
How can we categorize they way we explain causes of behavior in others according to attribution theory?
How does the attribution process work?
Show the flow diagram
Consistency; do other people act this way in similar situations?
Distrinctiveness; Did this person act this way in the past?
Consensus; Does this person act this way in other settings?
Explain the self furfilling prophecy. Show the diagram.
The process by which our expectations about another person cause that person to act mroe consistently with those expectations.
It can effect employee performance when it is the manager doing the percieving. This can be positive or negative.
What are some common perceptual errors?
- Attribution errors
- Primacy & recency effects
- Halo errors
- False-consensus effect
What is wrong with stereotyping?
- Distorts how we see individuals in a group, causes us to screen out inconsistent information with that belief.
- Steretypes can be every inaccurate when there are little interaction with individuals in a group, conflict is experienced, and the stereotype is linked to our sense of self identity.
What is the fundemental attribution error?
The tendency to attribute other's actions to internal causes. We can't see the external factors that effect others as clearly as we percieve them ourselves.
What is the self-serving bias
Taking credit for our own fails (internal attribution) but blaming our failures on factors beyond our control (external attribution)
What is the primacy & recency effect?
The primacy effect is our tendency to form an opinion of people quickly, based on the first information we recieve about them.
The recency effect is when the most recent information dominates our perceptions.
Give an example of the halo effect
Ex. A supervisor who values punctuality forms a negative image of an employee who is late, or a positive image of an employee that is punctual that seeps in to their evaluation of other aspects of that employee.
What is the halo effect?
When our general impression of a person, usually based of one prominent characteristic distorts our preception of other characteristics of that person.
What is the false consensus effect?
When people overestimate the extent to which others have similar beliefs or behaviors to our own.
How can perceptual biases be combated?
- Awareness. This only has a limited effect. Peopel tend to reject the idea that htey are influenced by perceptions.
- Improving self awareness, with the Johari window, which maps biases along a squire, with one axis being knowledge that others have of some bias, and the other being the knowledge that you have of the bias. Through disclose, you can make others aware of your biases, and through feedback you can become aware of your own, reducing your "blind area", "Hidden area" and "Unknown area"
- Meaningful interaction.
What is the Johari Window?
A graph which maps biases along a square:
- One axis is knowledge that others have of your biases.
- The other the knowledge that you have of your biases.
Through disclose, you can make others aware of your biases, and through feedback you can become aware of your own, reducing your "blind area", "Hidden area" and "Unknown area"