What is motivation? What does it affect?
The forces within a person that affect effort: i.e.
What are motivation driven by?
Needs. A deficiency in some need will trigger behavior to satisfy that need.
What theories of motivation are there?
- Maslow's needs hierarchy theory
- McClelland's learned needs thoery
- Lawrence & Nohria's four drive theory
- Motivator Hygiene thoery (proved incorrect).
What are the needs in Maslows hierarchy? Explain as required.
- Self-Actualization: Self furfillment.
- Belongingness: Need for interaction with and affection from others.
- Safety: Security and stability.
What is the existance related growth model?
- Catagorizes maslows needs into Growth, Relatedness and Existence.
- Introduces the idea of frustration regression - when a higher need is frustrated, lower needs can be triggered.
What is McClellands theory?
- A theory which recognises that a person's needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning and social conditions.
- Considers three 'learned' needs:
What is McClelland's need for achievement. What incentives feed this need?
People with a strong need for achievement will want to
- Accomplish reasonably challanging goals through their own effort,
- Recieve recognition and unabmbigous feedback.
Money is a weak incentive unless it is an indicator of feedback. Money is a strong incentive for those without a strong ambition need.
How do individuals with a high affiliation need operate in the workplace?
- Try to actively support others and smooth out workplace conflicts.
- Work well in coordinating roles and sales positions.
- Less effective at allocating scarse resources and making decision that involve conflict.
Examine McClelland's need for affiliation.
The desire to:
- seek approval from others,
- conform to their wishs and expectations
- avoid conflict and confrontation.
What behaviors would we expect from those with a high power need (from McClellands theory)
How can we categorise these individuals?
- Use of persuasive communication,
- Make frequent comments, and public evaluations.
McClellend considers those who desire personal power, and those who desire power (socialised power) as a means to help others.
What is McClelland's need for Power?
The desire to exercise control over others and maintain a leadership position.
What is the four drive theory?
Based on four innate drives
- To Aquire - my precious
- To Bond - love you bae
- To Learn - I don't understand, I must spend hours reading wikipedia
- To Defend - it's mine, fuck off
What are the features of the drives of the four drives theory?
- Innate and hardwired.
- Can be seperated into proactive and reactive (defend is the later).
Implications of need theories for firms?