Topic 7: Content Theories (Needs) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 7: Content Theories (Needs) Deck (14):

What is motivation? What does it affect?

The forces within a person that affect effort: i.e.

  • Direction
  • Intensity
  • Persistence


What are motivation driven by?

Needs. A deficiency in some need will trigger behavior to satisfy that need.


What theories of motivation are there?

  • Maslow's needs hierarchy theory
  • McClelland's learned needs thoery
  • Lawrence & Nohria's four drive theory
  • Motivator Hygiene thoery (proved incorrect).


What are the needs in Maslows hierarchy? Explain as required.

  1. Self-Actualization: Self furfillment.
  2. Esteem 
  3. Belongingness: Need for interaction with and affection from others.
  4. Safety: Security and stability.
  5. Physiological

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What is the existance related growth model? 

  • Catagorizes maslows needs into Growth, Relatedness and Existence.
  • Introduces the idea of frustration regression - when a higher need is frustrated, lower needs can be triggered.

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What is McClellands theory?

  • A theory which recognises that a person's needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning and social conditions.
  • Considers three 'learned' needs:
    • Achievement
    • Power 
    • Affiliation


What is McClelland's need for achievement. What incentives feed this need?

People with a strong need for achievement will want to

  • Accomplish reasonably challanging goals through their own effort,
  • Recieve recognition and unabmbigous feedback.

Money is a weak incentive unless it is an indicator of feedback. Money is a strong incentive for those without a strong ambition need.


How do individuals with a high affiliation need operate in the workplace?

  • Try to actively support others and smooth out workplace conflicts.
  • Work well in coordinating roles and sales positions.
  • Less effective at allocating scarse resources and making decision that involve conflict.


Examine McClelland's need for affiliation. 

The desire to:

  • seek approval from others,
  • conform to their wishs and expectations
  • avoid conflict and confrontation.




What behaviors would we expect from those with a high power need (from McClellands theory)

How can we categorise these individuals?

  • Use of persuasive communication,
  • Make frequent comments, and public evaluations.

McClellend considers those who desire personal power, and those who desire power (socialised power) as a means to help others.


What is McClelland's need for Power?

The desire to exercise control over others and maintain a leadership position.



What is the four drive theory?

Based on four innate drives

  • To Aquire - my precious
  • To Bond - love you bae
  • To Learn - I don't understand, I must spend hours reading wikipedia
  • To Defend - it's mine, fuck off


What are the features of the drives of the four drives theory?

  • Innate and hardwired.
  • Independent.
  • Can be seperated into proactive and reactive (defend is the later).


Implications of need theories for firms?

  • Match rewards with employee needs by offering choice
  • Limited use of financial rewards as a source of motivation
  • Balance the four drives