What are values? What do they do?
- Relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person’s preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations.
- Define right or wrong
- Can be catagorized into systems or hierarchies.
How are values linked to behavior? When will they be strongly linked?
Habitual behavior is usually consistant with values, but conscious behavior is less so.
Decisions and behavior tend to be linked to values when:
- We are mindful of others
- We have logical reasons to apply values in that situation
- The situation does not interfere
What value models are considered in this course?
- Schwartz's model of values
- Holfstede's cultural model of values
What are the broad catagories in Schwartz's values model? Briefly explain them.
Openness to change: Motivation to pursue innovative ways
Conservation: motivation to preserve the status quo
Self-enhancement: motivated by self interest
Self-transcendence: motivation to promote welface of others and nature.
What values fall under openness to change?
- Self-direction (creativity, independent thought)
- Stimulation (excitment, challange)
What values fall under Self-Enhancement?
- Achievement (pursuit of success)
- Power (dominance over others)
What values fall under Conservation
What values fall under Self-Transcendence
- Universalism (concern for welfare of all people and nature)
- Benevolense (concern for others in one's life)
What is value congruence?
When two or more entities have similar value systems.
What are problems and benifits with value incongruence
Incongruence between companies and employees can lead to incompatible decisions, lower satisfaction & loyaldy, higher stress, and higher turnover.
Incongruence can be constructive however, and lead to beter decision making, avoids corporate cults
What is individualism as a value? What countries score high / low in this?
The degree to which people value personal freedom, self‐sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities.
Australia & Italy rank high, Taiwan ranks low
What is collectivism as a value? What countries rank high and low?
The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group.
- Italy and Taiwan score high
- Australia scores low
What is power distance as a value? What countries rank high and low?
High power distance:
- Value obedience to authority
- Comfortable receiving commands from superiors
- Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts
Low power distance
- Expect relatively equal power sharing
- View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence
- Malaysia, Venezuela rank high
- New Zealand and Israel rank low
What is Uncertainty Avoidance as a value? What countries rank high/low?
High uncertainty avoidance
- feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
- value structured situations and direct communication
Low uncertainty avoidance
- tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
- Greece and Japan rank high
- Singapore ranks low
- Australia in the middle.
What is achievement-nuturing orientation as a value? What countries rank high and low?
High achievement orientation
High nurturing orientation
- Others’ wellbeing
- Japan ranks high
- Sweden ranks low
- Australia in the middle.
What are the three ethical principles?
- Individual rights
- Distributive justice
What factors maginify moral intensity perceptions?
Mind Clueless Peter TPC
- Magnitude of consequences
- Social consensus
- Probability of effect
- Temporal immediacy
- Concentration of effect (the more people clearly identified as harmed).
Influences on ethical conduct
- Moral intensity: degree that issue demands ethical principles
- Ethical sensitivity: ability to recognise presence and determine relative importance
- Situational influences: competitive pressures and otehr conditions
How can ethical behavior be supported?
- Ethical code of conduct
- Ethics training
- Ethics hotlines
- Ethical leadership and culture
What are the cultural values we examine?