Topic 3: Values Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3: Values Deck (20):

What are values? What do they do?

  • Relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person’s preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations.
  • Define right or wrong
  • Can be catagorized into systems or hierarchies.


How are values linked to behavior? When will they be strongly linked?

Habitual behavior is usually consistant with values, but conscious behavior is less so.

Decisions and behavior tend to be linked to values when:

  • We are mindful of others
  • We have logical reasons to apply values in that situation
  • The situation does not interfere


What value models are considered in this course?

  • Schwartz's model of values
  • Holfstede's cultural model of values 


What are the broad catagories in Schwartz's values model? Briefly explain them.

  • Openness to change: Motivation to pursue innovative ways
  • Conservation: motivation to preserve the status quo
  • Self-enhancement: motivated by self interest
  • Self-transcendence: motivation to promote welface of others and nature.


What values fall under openness to change?

  • Self-direction (creativity, independent thought)
  • Stimulation (excitment, challange)
    Hedonism (shared)


What values fall under Self-Enhancement?

  • Hedonism
  • Achievement (pursuit of success)
  • Power (dominance over others)


What values fall under Conservation

  • Security
  • Tradition/Conformity


What values fall under Self-Transcendence

  • Universalism (concern for welfare of all people and nature)
  • Benevolense (concern for others in one's life)



What is value congruence?

When two or more entities have similar value systems.


What are problems and benifits with value incongruence

 Incongruence between companies and employees can lead to incompatible decisions, lower satisfaction & loyaldy, higher stress, and higher turnover.

Incongruence can be constructive however, and lead to beter decision making, avoids corporate cults


What is individualism as a value? What countries score high / low in this?

The degree to which people value personal freedom, self‐sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities.

Australia & Italy rank high, Taiwan ranks low


What is collectivism as a value? What countries rank high and low?

The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group.

  • Italy and Taiwan score high
  • Australia scores low


What is power distance as a value? What countries rank high and low?

High power distance: 

  • Value obedience to authority
  • Comfortable receiving commands from superiors
  • Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts

Low power distance

  • Expect relatively equal power sharing
  • View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence

Country Ranking

  • Malaysia, Venezuela rank high
  • New Zealand and Israel rank low


What is Uncertainty Avoidance as a value? What countries rank high/low?

High uncertainty avoidance

  • feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
  • value structured situations and direct communication

Low uncertainty avoidance

  • tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty


  • Greece and Japan rank high
  • Singapore ranks low
  • Australia in the middle.


What is achievement-nuturing orientation as a value? What countries rank high and low?

High achievement orientation

  • Assertiveness
  • Competitiveness
  • Materialism

High nurturing orientation

  • Relationships
  • Others’ wellbeing


  • Japan ranks high
  • Sweden ranks low
  • Australia in the middle.


What are the three ethical principles?

  • Utalitarianism
  • Individual rights
  • Distributive justice


What factors maginify moral intensity perceptions?

Mind Clueless Peter TPC

  • Magnitude of consequences
  • Social consensus
  • Probability of effect
  • Temporal immediacy
  • Proximity
  • Concentration of effect (the more people clearly identified as harmed).


Influences on ethical conduct

  • Moral intensity: degree that issue demands ethical principles
  • Ethical sensitivity: ability to recognise presence and determine relative importance
  • Situational influences: competitive pressures and otehr conditions


How can ethical behavior be supported?

  • Ethical code of conduct
  • Ethics training
  • Ethics hotlines
  • Ethical leadership and culture


What are the cultural values we examine?

  • Individualism 
  • Collectivism 
  • Power distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Achievement-Nuturing