TRH's male repro phys; 4.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TRH's male repro phys; 4.1 Deck (35):
1

Where are sperm produced?

Seminiferous tubules

2

What are spermatogonia? Where are they?

Sperm stem cells

The epithelium of seminiferous tubules

3

What are spermatocytes? Where are they?

Sperm in the process of maturing

The epithelium of seminiferous tubules

4

What do Sertoli cells do? Where are they?

Sertoli cells form a blood-testes barrier, provide nutrients to differentiating sperm, and secrete an aqueous fluid into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules

The epithelium of seminiferous tubules

5

What kind of receptor are prevalent on Sertoli cells?

FSH receptor

(can think of as the male granulosa cells...even secrete inhibin)

6

What do Leydig cells do?

Synthesize and secrete testosterone (95% of the body's testosterone...other 5% from adrenals)

(can think of as the male version of theca cells...even have LH receptors)

7

What is andropause?

Androgen deficiency with aging (decrease in testicular function)

8

What are the symptoms of andropause?

ED
Weight gain d/t metabolism shifts
Reduced activity
Gynecomastia

9

What hormones will be high with andropause?

Gonadotropins (FSH/LH)

(no feedback inhibition)

10

What is dihydrotestosterone (DHT)?

A potent androgen

11

What enzyme converts testosterone to DHT?

5α reductase

12

What is Sex Hormone Binding Protein (SHBP) called in Sertoli cells (where it is also made)?

Androgen binding globulin

13

What are some of the hormonal functions of androgen?

Promote health/function of:
Seminal vesicle
Prostate
Genital tract
External genitalia
Hair growth patterns
Voice change

14

What anabolic effects do androgens have?

Positive nitrogen balance
Bone growth and epiphysis closure
Sodium and water retention

15

What is methyl testosterone?

Testosterone replacement therapy

16

What is a toxicity of methyl testosterone?

Hepatotoxicity

17

What is oxandrolone?

Anabolic steroid (DHT derivative)

18

Does oxandrolone have the same hepatotoxicity as methyl testosterone?

Not really...low risk of hepatotoxicity

19

What is flutamide?

Non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonist

20

What does flutamide do?

Causes medical castration

21

When is flutamide used?

Flutamide is used in advanced prostate cancer

22

What are the side effects of flutamide?

Gynecomastia
Hepatotoxicity

23

What are gonadorelin and leuprolide?

Non-pulsatile GnRH (LHRH) agonists

24

What is gonadorelin used for?

Functional assessment of gonadal response

25

What is leuprolide used for?

Castration for cancer patients

26

How does leuprolide work?

Continuous administration → ↑ of LH and FSH → ↑ T → 10 day desensitization of the pituitary and suppression of LH and FSH

27

What are degarelix, ganirelix, and cetrorelix?

Non-pulsatile GnRH antagonists

28

What is degarelix used for?

Castration for advanced prostate cancer/BPH

29

What are ganirelix and cetrorelix used for?

Blocks premature LH surge in females

30

What is finastride?

5α-reductase inhibitor

31

What is finastride used for?

Male pattern baldness and BPH

32

So in a nutshell, when should GnRH agonists/antagonists be used?

When the goal is to shut down the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

33

What should be used to reduce androgen receptor signaling in the prostate gland?

Androgen receptor agonists; and/or 5α-reductase inhibitors; and/or GnRH antagonists

34

What drug is a PDE-5 inhibitor?

Sildenafil

35

What is the MoA of sildenafil?

Prevents degradation of cGMP