Westra's prostate cancer; 4.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Westra's prostate cancer; 4.1 Deck (30):
1

What is the most common male cancer?

Prostate cancer (1:6 lifetime risk in US)

2

Which race is at greatest risk of both developing and dying from prostate cancer?

Africans

3

Is there a genetic component to prostate cancer?

Yes...first degree relative with prostate cancer→ 2x as likely and relative with breast cancer also increases risk

4

What gene is equated with prostate cancer?

Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1)...on chromosome 1q24-25

5

What age group is mostly to present with prostate cancer?

65-74 (avg. age is 66)

6

What can be eaten that INCREASES the likelihood of developing prostate cancer?

High amounts of folic acid (synthetic folate)

(also increased dairy/calcium...but that isn't important)

7

What chemicals can men be exposed to at work that increase the likelihood of developing prostate cancer?

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons
Acetic acid and acetic anhydrate
Dioxin

8

What can be eaten/taken that DECREASES the likelihood of developing prostate cancer?

Natural folate (diet)
Finasteride/dutasteride (chemoprevention)

9

What is considered a "normal" PSA level?

<4ng/mL

10

What is considered a high PSA level?

>10ng/mL

11

What is PSA velocity?

PSA change over time

12

What is a significant PSA velocity?

>0.75ng/mL

13

What is PSA density?

PSA level relative to size of gland

14

How is PSA density measured?

Transurethral ultrasound (TRUS)

15

What is the Gleason score of a grade II prostate cancer?

5-7

16

What stages of prostate cancer are clinically localized?

T1 and T2

17

What is done with a radical prostatectomy?

Removal of prostate and seminal vesicles

(retropubic/perineal approach)

18

What is done with a transurethral resection?

Removal of cancerous section of prostate gland

19

Cryosurgery is exactly what it sounds like...but besides the typical side effects of impotence and urinary incontinence, what else can go wrong?

Bladder outlet injury
Rectal injury

20

What are two types of radiation therapy used for prostate cancer?

External beam radiation
Interstitial brachytherapy

21

What is the end goal of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer?

Decrease androgen stimulation of prostate cancer cells

22

Where is the site of action of estrogens in prostate cancer therapy?

Estrogens act on the hypothalamus

23

What is an orchiectomy?

Removal of testicles

24

Where is the site of action of anti-androgens for prostate cancer?

Anti-androgens act directly on the prostate

25

Where is the site of action of LHRH agonists for prostate cancer?

LHRH agonists act in the pituitary

26

When is chemotherapy used?

Progressive or recurrent disease

27

Impotence is a common side effect to many of the prostate cancer treatment options. How is impotence treated?

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

28

Hot flushes happen with androgen deprivation therapy...how should this side effect be treated?

Paroxetine or gabapentin

29

How is a local prostate cancer surveyed?

DRE annually
PSA every 6-12months for 5yrs...then annually

30

How is advanced (N1, M1) surveyed?

DRE and PSA every 3-6months