Flashcards in Unit 12: Career Counselling Deck (28):
Describe the facilitating of self-awareness in career counselling
The first step is to help clients discover what they really want and need, to become aware of what they value most.
Includes several aspects of self exploration including concrete, reflective, and actual exploration
This aspect of self exploration includes activities that allow the client to become more directly involved in career exploration activities. Might include using computer-based career guidance systems to clarify values, needs, and interests; writing a detailed vocational history; and describing in writing pivotal experiences and life decisions
This aspect of self exploration in career counselling might include activities to clarify the personal importance of life decisions, events, and transitions and to evaluate personal needs, wants, desires, goals, interests, and dreams in terms of their relative importance. During this phase of self-evaluation, it is useful to weigh the relative value of input from family, associates, friends, and other significant individuals regarding personal strengths, weaknesses, and skills
This aspect of self-exploration in career counselling might include activity such as resume writing, videotaped practice interviews with feedback sessions, and informational interviews with individuals employed and possible career choices. The purpose of these activities is to increase self-awareness and to accurately assess strengths, weaknesses, aptitudes, skills, and lifestyle issues
Describe the teaching of employability skills in career counselling
Helping them with practical skills that can help people find and maintain satisfaction in their careers. Clients are helped to develop personal marketing strategies to sell themselves and their potential during interviews and encouraged to work on overcoming inertia, resisting procrastination, relieving job-related stress, building and interpersonal support system, and avoiding feelings of frustration and failure. The key feature of this approach is to help prepare clients not only to deal with the most impending career choice, but also to generalize this knowledge and skills for the purposes of working through future issues in any domain
Describe Theodore Caplow's theory of career development
Based on the notion that career choices are random events, accidents, or errors resulting from being at the right/wrong place at the right/wrong time. Believed that birth order any accidents of inheritance such as parentage, race, nationality, gender, and background, strongly influence your chosen occupation
Describe Donald Super's theory of career development
A person self-concept is all important in determining vocational development, a process that he viewed as ongoing and orderly through success of stages. An occupation is the individual expression of ones interests and abilities at a particular time. As a person's preferences and skills evolve, so does his or her career, reflecting the changing self-concept.
Recognize that people differ in their personalities and unique strengths and therefore choose occupations that will permit them to use their competencies.
In Donald Super's theory of career development, this stage is when a person uses fantasy, play, and role experimentation to help clarify the emerging self concept, and moves tentatively onward in the early 20s to a first job
In Donald Super's theory of career development, this stage is when, through experimenting and trying out various options, the person discovers an occupation well-suited to satisfy personal needs. The self-concept adjusts to fit the stabilized career choice
The establishment stage
In Donald Super's theory of career development, career stability gained in the establishment stage may or may not last into this stage. In today's times of high unemployment, greater flexibility, and changing situations, this stage main involve a return to earlier developmental tasks in the search for personal and professional satisfaction
In Donald Super's theory of career development, this stage is characterized, naturally, by dealing with reduced energy and trying to maintain one's position until retirement
Describe John Holland's theory of career development
Believes that career choices are expressions of the total personality. Satisfaction depends on the compatibility of a person's work situation and personality style.
Individuals can be categorized into six different personality types, realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional, depending on interests, preferences, and skills
Describe Robert Hoppock's theory of career development
Stressed the function of the job in satisfying personal needs, but his theory has attained wide popularity also because of his efforts to integrate ideas from a number of other theories. Vocational development begins with the first awareness that a job can help meet one needs and continues as the person is better able to anticipate how potentially satisfying a particular career could be as compared with others. Once a person becomes aware of other jobs that could satisfy personal needs, then occupational choices are subject to change. The degree of job satisfaction can be determined by assessing between what a person wants from a job and what she or he actually has attained
The counsellors role is to stimulate the client self awareness of interest and needs, including the clarification of values; promote insight into that which gives life personal meaning; provide accurate and complete occupational information; help match the clients perceive strengths and weaknesses with occupations like me to provide maximum need satisfaction
Describe Anne Roe's theory of career development
On the basis of her intensive investigations of scientists early childhood's, she created a theory that emphasizes need satisfaction in career choices. Persons from child-centered , Rejecting, or accepting homes are predisposed to compensate for or duplicate in their jobs experiences that they missed or enjoyed in their childhood homes
The emotional climate of the home is one of three types: emotional concentration on the child, avoidance of the child, or acceptance of the child.
Emotional concentration on the child is either overprotecting or over demanding. Overprotecting parents limit a child and encourage dependency, while over demanding parents set very high standards for the child and rigidly enforce conformity. The avoidance type ranges from rejecting to neglecting. The accepting pattern is divided into casual acceptance and loving acceptance.
These six subdivisions produce two types of vocational behavior. The categories of loving, overprotective, and overdemanding tend to produce a major vocational orientation toward persons. The remaining categories, casual, neglecting, and rejecting, produce a major vocational orientation away from persons
Describe John Krumboktz's theory of career development
Developed a social learning theory that attempts to synthesize the factors that influence career decision making. Acknowledges the impact of genetic endowment-how race, gender, cultural and physical characteristics, native intelligence, and abilities limit some choices and expand others.
How environmental factors such as the economic climate, occupational opportunities available, labour laws, union rules, technological developments, family resources, educational systems, and other variables outside the individuals control influence occupational decision-making.
How previous learning experiences such as conditioned stimuli and reinforcers, sheep the person's attitude and interests towards various professions.
How a person's task approach skills, which are his or her performance standards, work habits, unique perceptions, and abilities to alter problem-solving strategies flexibly according to the demands of the situation
The counsellor helps people to learn a logical sequence of career decision making skills, arrange a series of exploration experiences that will provide needed information, and make informed choices about the consequences of what has been learned
Describe Linda Gottfredson's theory of career development
Different from other theories in three ways: The person leaves the decision making process beginning as early as age 3 and in general emphasizes childhood and adolescence as key phases in exploring and choosing career options; although she was not the first to stress the importance of matching a career to one's self-concept, she had looked at the role of the social self concept-how one sees oneself in terms of gender and social class; she believes that decision-making is not so much a matter of finding what occupation best fits one for self-concept, but rather a process of rejecting possibilities, a winnowing a way of an acceptable alternatives that ultimately concludes with a career choice in adolescence or young childhood
The way in which children cognitively process their career thinking is linked to four stages of childhood development each reflecting levels of growing cognitive complexity: orientation to size and power, orientation to sex roles, orientation to social valuation, orientation to the internal unique self
The narrowing of interests children experience. Begins in preschool and continues through the middle and high school years
_________ _______ in general look at how we give meaning to both our inner worlds and to external reality
Postmodern theories of career counselling
A postmodern theory of career counselling that emphasizes how our minds make sense of reality
A postmodern theory of career counselling that is interested in how meanings are created through the interactions of individuals, in particular via language, in the various social contexts such as our culture, our families, our communities, in which we live
A postmodern theory of career counselling that is focussed on how we give meaning to our actions by creating stories, essentially plots of our lives in which we are the central characters
Identify the similarities and differences between the three postmodern theories of career development
All three share the premise that meanings are fluid, our subjective interputation's, meanings derived from social discourse, and meetings in bedded in our personal narratives can all change. Argue that humans create their own reality and, by definition, and create different realities throughout their lifetimes.
What are some of the factors that influence career development?
Personal, familial, and cultural context for a persons choices and lifestyle.
Family values, cultural values, lifestyle issues, exploration of career options in young adult, the positive and negative role models encountered, issues of personal growth and psychological separation from family, midlife career change implications, gender role issues, marital issues, and the need for honest self-reflection.
Describe the six decision-making model steps in career counselling:
1. Defining the problem: the counsellor helped client explore various aspects of a stated vocational issue. Specific counselling skills are used to elicit information, establish priorities, and crystallize salient points. Is essential that sufficient time be spent on the step because it will set the tone for future progress. Problem identification may need to be done at several stages in the process
2. Finding and using information: once the locational he related problems identified, the counsellor assist the client in gathering useful information. Sources might include testing; occupational, vocational, and educational information; and a computer-assisted job search. The counsellor must also help the client to use the information in an appropriate manner by interpreting tests, clarifying misunderstandings, and generating conclusions
3. Creating alternatives: the counsellor and client combine forces to identify as many alternatives as possible. Those that are clearly inappropriate are excluded, and the remaining alternatives are examined in the light of information on attitudes, interests, values, and availability
4. Developing plans: in this stage, plans that may be either tentative or firm, depending on the clients needs, are developed. The planning stage should be detailed and sequenced and should have contingencies built into it. This is a crucial step because it translates the information into action-oriented steps
5. Implementing plans: primarily the responsibilities of the client, although the counsellor should be available for consultation and support. Sometimes clients experience difficulty at this stage, and the counsellor should intervene to determine whether there are flaws in the plan or whether personal counselling is needed
6. Evaluating plans: evaluation helps the client to determine the effectiveness of the decision-making process and to feed results into a new problem formulation. Counsellor should emphasize to clients that they are ultimately implementing a process as much as a specific decision. Vocational decision-making is a lifelong undertaking that requires continual refinement and development
How can career counsellors use the decision-making process to assist clients both generally and specifically? Explain why this process is so complex
Counsellors must be familiar with the decision-making process both generally and specifically as it is applied to career decision-making so they can identify particular problems in a clients decision making style. They must focus not only on decision-making skills but also on techniques to correct the embedded or underlying difficulties in making decisions. Career counsellors must be flexible and insightful as they diagnose multiple variables affecting her your decision-making and be versatile in designing treatment approaches for specific problems
Is highly complex, counsellors can help clients to perform this crucial life work in a systematic and objective fashion, providing information and assistance at critical points
How have the trends in career counselling affected all counselors?
The fundamental nature of our society has changed from an industrial base to an information base. Where is once upon a time our economy was driven by the manufacturing of tangible goods, other countries such as China are becoming the worlds new industrial powers while the market place in western nations is increasingly dominated by service-oriented jobs and thousands of jobs are being outsourced to foreign countries.
During these dramatic shift in our economic structure, two classes of workers are emerging: skilled and specialized service, professional, and technical workers who are from an elite and highly employable class; an underclass of workers without employable skills.
Likely to create technical problems and labour shortages in addition to the human problems created by dislocations.
Changes in the workplace include the ways that we function in our jobs, unemployment and job elimination because workers are unable to adapt quick enough, women increasingly entering the workplace and the issues relating to that such as sexual harassment, salary in equities, do a career families, and the need for childcare. New workers entering the labour market will be women and immigrants
Work and leisure is changing as productivity increases through the application of Technology to work, efficiency is likely to increase, meaning that people will be able to work fewer hours. Productive work may one day become a relatively scarce resource. Individuals must develop the skills and abilities to use leisure in a manner that will be personally fulfilling
The Internet has allowed mass access to computer-assisted guidance systems or CAGS. Why is it important for counsellors to be competent in the use of the systems? What are some of the things that a career counsellor can offer in association with the systems?
They require the involvement of a human counsellor for assisting clients in using the systems effectively, and they are expensive, so only organizations like universities can afford them.
Counsellors need to be competent in the use of the system because they will only become more sophisticated and effective and they can assist counsellors in their work
Things that career counsellors can do in association with the systems:
- provide a supportive environment for individual struggling with a career decision
- difficulties with choosing a career may be rooted in underlying emotional issues, which only a counsellor can detect
- effective career decisions cannot be made without looking at the contextual factors in a persons life.
- well computers can administer an even interpret tests, only a career counsellor can help a client explore the meaning of test results
- A career counsellor can guarantee confidentiality while the Internet is not a secure environment
- only the counsellor can support the human by patting him on the back and getting them encouragement