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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (19):

The first step in helping clients with career decision involves the counsellor

Facilitating client self-awareness of the clients own values


John Holland's theory of vocational development is divided into six categories and focusses on

Personality style and compatibility


A superiority complex is

Overcompensation for feelings of inferiority


According to boy and Pine, theory is the ____ behind the ____ of counselling

Why; how


Constructionist career theorists list all of the following as client tasks except

A. Exploring dominant storylines and preferred futures
B. Developing a contingency plan of alternative paths to express preferred futures
C. Developing flexible goals that reflect positive uncertainty
D. Choosing among possibilities based on the advice and beliefs of others

Choosing among possibilities based on the advice and beliefs of others


A main advantage of an open-ended group is

Size flexibility


Career counseling, which tends to focus on decision-making, includes

Corrective techniques to alter underline difficulties


The empty chair technique is used in

Gestalt therapy


The most powerful and dominant influencer of human behavior, according to Adlerian thought, is the

Conscious mind


In a crisis situation, all of the following are sent to listening activities that need to be implemented initially except

Defining the problem
Ensuring client safety
Providing support
Examining alternatives

Examining alternatives


The working stage of the group is known as the ______ stage, while the most enthusiasm and cohesion is generated in the ______ stage

Performing; norming


Group counselling focuses on ________ involvement, whereas psychoeducational groups focus more on ________ understanding

Affective; cognitive


_______ groups help individual group members remediate in-depth psychological problem



General systems theory introduced the idea of

Circular causality


Briefly describe two goals related to behavioural therapy as well as two techniques used

Goals: include assisting clients to unlearn the maladaptive behaviours they have learned from conditioning or reinforcements in their environment, and helping clients to replace those unproductive behaviours with more productive and healthy ones

Techniques: behavioural rehearsal where the counsellor assist their client in practising behaviours valuable to the client until they are satisfied with how they are able to perform that behavior. Another technique is punishment, where and aversive stimulus is introduced to help suppress or eliminate an unwanted behaviour


You have been asked to set up a counselling group for a population of your choice. In your own words describe three issues regarding group size and duration, two issues regarding open versus closed groups

Group size and duration: I will need to consider that having a larger group may cause some members to be forgotten, and that a larger group may mean that some people will not be able to participate as much, where as having two small of a group may mean that the members will run out of things to talk about and therefore may cause less interaction. Group size is also related to the duration of the group meetings because the longer a group runs for the more members can be involved because there is a longer amount of time to share and participate

Open versus closed groups: I need to consider that having an open group can help to keep the numbers up because new members can be added when others drop out, but the continual addition of new members may cause the group to be less unified and productive and it would be if it was a closed-group because the new group members have to establish relationships with others, develop a sense of trust so they can share, and the new members are at a bit of a disadvantage compared to those who are already in the group who may have already learned valuable skills


In your own words, describe two limitations for each of the following types of counseling: person-centered and existential

Person-centered: clients generally need to be intelligent and driven to do well due to the focus on the client being in control of therapy sessions and to become empowered to be a fully-functioning person who lives up to their full potential. Clients who are mentally challenged or who have limited education may not have the capacity to leave the sessions and set goals, they probably need a more structured approach. And those who are not motivated or lazy may not want to become the best they can be and counselling will not be successful. Another limitation is that it's view that people are essentially good and driven towards self-actually Seshan may be too superficial and overly optimistic, ignoring important and deeper issues that the client may be having that may need to be diagnosed and treated with active therapeutical techniques

Existential: because counsellors consider every client to be unique and they deal with each one in a distinctive matter, do not have consistent rolls or techniques to follow and this approach is therefore limited when it comes to organize education and training of counselors. A second limitation is that it is difficult to put into practice and less empirical then other methods due to the reasons mentioned above, namely subjective approach taken with clients


Briefly describe behavioural therapy's view of human nature and describe the role of the counsellor

View of human nature: a culmination of learned productive and unproductive behaviours that can be unlearned with help from a behavioural counselor. Whereas other therapies me focus on the clients past history and personality traits, behavioural therapy does not, and instead focusses more on present problems and behaviours that can be observed

Role of the counselor: counsellor takes an active role in helping the client to unlearn any unproductive behaviours through a variety of empirically tested techniques by teaching, assisting, or reinforcing their client and always checking in with them to ensure a mutual understanding of goals. Behavioural counselor's may also involve others in the clients environment in counselling


Which of the following is not an example of an advantage of group counseling?

A. Members realize that they are not alone
B. Members learn about themselves in social situations
C. Members can try out new behaviours in a safe group environment
D. Members develop a groupthink mentality

D. Members develop a groupthink mentality