Unit 1: Counselling In Canada-History And Trends Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Counselling In Canada-History And Trends Deck (27):

Processes that seek to help people improve their well-being and increase their ability to solve problems and make decisions for both the present and the future.

Counselling and psychotherapy


A general term for a set of ways in which a helper helps someone. It includes the information that should be collected, the structure of the interactions between the parties, the rules for what the helper can/cannot do in the process, and so forth.



Psychotherapy is also just called _______ in the literature. About the only universal distinction between psychotherapy and _____ is that ______ is more generic and can also be applied to biological treatment approaches, where is psychotherapy is more universally known as talk therapy



These kind of counsellors focus on helping their clients make the right decision on specific issues. Their expertise defines right and wrong

Usually focuses on assisting a person to make a time-and context-limited decision

Guidance counsellors

Counsellors or therapists who are not providing guidance services do not assume that they have the correct answer, but help their clients determine the best decision for themselves


The skilled and principled use of relationship to facilitate self-knowledge, emotional acceptance and growth and the optimal development of personal resources. The overall aim is to provide an opportunity for people to work towards living more satisfyingly and resourcefully. H


Counting relationships may be concerned with developmental issues, addressing and resolving specific problems, making decisions, coping with crisis, developing personal insight and knowledge, working through feelings of inner conflict or improving relationships with others


1850 to 1899

The European moral therapy movement, which saw a humane approach and mileau as the best way to treat psychological problems, appears to have been a major influence on the very early development of services for orphans and delinquent children in Ontario.
Passed the first laws for the protection and care of children


From 1900 to 1919 Two individuals who had experienced mental illness were among the earliest influences on the mental health movement in Canada:

Clifford Beers and Dr. Clarence Hincks


A Canadian medical Doctor Who experienced periods of depression throughout his life. Founded the Canadian national committee for mental hygiene with the goal of improving facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of the mentally ill and mentally deficient, psychiatric assessment of military recruits and treatment for soldiers experiencing mental difficulties, prevention of mental illness, and psychological assessment of immigrants after the war.

Clarence Hincks

Goals arose from his personal experience with mental illness; his professional medical experience in Toronto examining schoolchildren labelled as feeble-minded or idiots, who were thought to be unteachable; and his observations of the lack of understanding, assessment and treatment of soldier suffering from shell shock and other mental illnesses



The beginnings of vocational guidance in Canadian junior and senior high school's which was intended to help students gain some knowledge of career options and was often part of the homeroom teachers responsibilities. Guidance programs included testing, advising, and the provision of information on vocational and educational choices

Canadian Association of social workers was founded


Helps students gain some knowledge of career options and it includes testing, advising, and the provision of information on vocational and educational choices

Vocational guidance



During World War II, Canadian counsellors and psychologists constructed psychological tests for the selection and classification of military personnel

The first collaboration between counsellors and psychologists which led to the establishment of the Canadian psychological association or CPA in 1939



Progress in the vocational guidance field where leadership came from guidance branches established by provincial Department of Education and those with specialized training began to replace teachers as vocational guidance counselor's, especially in the areas of testing and counselling

By the late 1940s, counsellors needed to have specialized and professional training in testing and the trait factor, directive approach to guidance. Broad and vocation to include social, emotional, physical, and interests as important areas to be identified and developed (Samuel Laycock)

Post secondary counselling got its start

Regional progress occurred for social workers in Alberta



Period of transition for school counsellors as the emphasis on guidance counselling decreased and counsellors began to focus their attention on the client-centered, individualized approach to counselling developed by Carl Rogers

First child care worker training program opened



Formation of provincial and national associations, the passing of legislation in Alberta and go back, and the development of undergraduate and graduate counsellor education programs

Alberta Association of social workers formed and the Alberta social workers act was passed

Quebec became the first province to regulate counselling in Canada in 1963 when career counselling became a regulated profession

The Canadian guidance and counselling Association or CGCA was created to nationally serve the needs of Canadian counsellors



A major shift from the psychotherapeutic approach to a preventative developmental approach

Counsellors in schools attempted to integrate elements from educational, vocational, and personal counselling to devise strategies to promote normal development and prevent poor mental health before it occurred



Counselling programs using the educational approach in schools were in place in all Canadian provinces.

Canadian counselling continued to emphasize a preventative approach to counselling by encouraging the development of the individual and focussing on personal issues such as self-esteem, self awareness, decision-making, career exploration, and life planning. The focus was on teaching clients how to live positive healthy lives (psycheducational approach)



The Canadian professional counsellors Association or CBCA was formed with its primary purpose to protect the public by requiring registered professional counsellor members to meet high standards of training and ethical practice, and to provide regulation of counsellors who may not have advanced levels of education


2000 to 2009

Counsellors in Ontario and Nova Scotia, as well as social workers in Ontario, find me a cheap statutory regulation


In your view, which decade do you consider the most influential in the development of the counselling profession? Which time period was the least significant? Support your positions

The most influential decade was from 1900 to 1919 when Clarence Hincks and Clifford beers improved facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of the mentally ill and founded the Canadian national committee for mental hygiene. It was influential because they changed how people cared for and probably thought about people who had a mental illness and who were treated very badly. They changed the perspectives of mentally ill people from that came from a lack of understanding, and focussed more on treatment and helping them which is what counselling is essentially about.

The recent decades seem to be less significant because change doesn't seem to be moving as fast, but there are still important developments happening


An American who had suffered from psychosis who had written a best seller account of his experiences as a mental patient and advocated for reform of the treatment of the mentally ill in United States. Formed the Canadian national committee for mental hygiene

Clifford beers


Identify five issues that the profession of counselling will likely have to deal with in the future. Discuss the implications of each for the practice of counselling

1. Societal changes such as an increasingly diverse family structure, and then ageing population with increased focus on health, and social justice
Counsellors Will need to confront family structures that include gay and lesbian couples, shared custody situations and families experiencing divorce, and differing attitudes towards marriage and the family. Counsellors will have to adjust to these differences and adjust their practises accordingly

2. Multicultural change: minority groups are finding a voice and Canada is a cultural mosaic so counsellors need to be aware of and consider and have more knowledge and skill in counselling people from A variety of cultures and diverse subcultures

3. Work and employment change: many Canadians find themselves lacking required skills due to rapid technological advancement and employment change has become the norm. Career counsellors are facing new challenges because the emphasis is no longer on matching clients interests and abilities to appropriate lifetime vocational pursuits but need to assist them with holistic career-life planning to help them manage their educational, career, and leisure pursuits, as well as their family life and community involvement, since a change in one of these areas often affects other aspects of life

4. Privacy legislation: a counsellor must be mindful of legislatively protected personal rights to privacy for clients and sometimes these decisions will be unclear. Counsellors need to have decision-making models in place to help them make decisions that protect the rights of all parties while operating within both ethical and legal guidelines

5. Counsellor competency and compensation: counsellors I have begun to track outcomes of counselling services and evidence-based practice in psychology approach is recommended. Using other approaches that are not excepted as best practises may leave the counsellor in a somewhat vulnerable situation if the client or others questions his or her professional competence. Third parties paying for treatment may also insist on certain treatment modalities for some presenting problems. In the future, counselling is less likely to be conducted on the basis of theoretical preferences and more likely to be determined by evidence-based practice

Other changes are the widespread use of the Internet, and shared mental health care and T membership where counsellors work as either formal or informal teams of professionals and must adapt to roles that require definition and adapt to different communication channels and expectations


Meeting a set of standards for counselling practice



The integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences v intended to indicate the rules and procedures for determining what treatments, by whom, are most effective for a specific kind of problem or issue

Evidence-based practice in psychology


Describe changes with the Internet and counselling

The widespread use of the Internet has initiated innovative developments in Canadian counseling. Certain programs allow counsellors to receive their training through a combination of Internet and site-based learning activities which allows counselling to be accessible to individuals who are not able to pursue education in the traditional classroom environment

Online counselling have made counselling resources readily accessible to previously isolated persons and groups. Therapy can now be provided with a client and counsellor ever meeting in person or even speaking on the telephone


Integrating elements from educational, vocational, and personal counselling to devise strategies to promote normal development and prevent poor mental health before it occurs.
Focusses on personal issues, such as self-esteem, self awareness, decision-making, career exploration, and life planning. The focus is on teaching clients how to live positive, healthy lives

Psychoeducational approach


Describe the similarities and differences between the history of counselling in United States and the counselling movement in Canada

The development of counselling as a profession in Canada has followed the lead of, and being influenced primarily by developments in the US. Developments such as guidance as a profession in the US, the Industrial Revolution, the social welfare movement, public education, and large numbers of immigrants. Also, the mental health movement in Canada it was helped along by Clifford beers who was a pioneer of the American mental health movement. Many of the early Canadian leaders received their defence education in the US and the textbooks used in Canada were written by Americans

The biggest difference is that counselling is regulated in the US, and is largely unregulated in Canada


Why did the growing professionalization of social workers, psychologists, nurses, and other professions impact counselling in Canada?

Various professional groups stated that their members were adept at counselling and that counselling should be regarded as legitimately occurring within their member scope of practice. As such, members were encouraged to obtain more training in counseling, which in turn created a demand for such training. Is contributed to the acceptance of counselling as a legitimate service both by the professions and the general public. As a greater number of professionals claimed to use counselling skills, this created the demand for training in counselling skills, and provided face the D for counselling as a profession, both among professionals and the general public