Unit 4: Culture And Counselling Flashcards Preview

Introduction To Counselling > Unit 4: Culture And Counselling > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4: Culture And Counselling Deck (17):

Includes factors such as income, social status, and educational level. Should be considered a cultural variable in some instances but in other situations, it should be viewed in conjunction with other factors or situational variables

Socioeconomic status


For SES problems to be situational, what two criteria must they meet?

1. SES factors such as income, social status, educational level, etc., are likely major causative factors in or for the presenting complaint

2. There isn't the presence of a pattern of events or situations that suggests that this circumstance is likely a result of childhood learning

Example: a person from a background we're almost constant unemployment was not an issue, but is currently unemployed because of a bad economy or other factors not in their control might be facing SES issues such as poverty but they would be most likely situational, not cultural


Can SES be considered a cultural factor?

Being poor may be more than just an economic summarization; it may also present a way of life that has been instilled or indoctrinated, having many of the characteristics commonly associated with being a member of a specified culture

In instances where an SES factor should inform and helped to determine counselling approach is in goals, a second question should be asked: is this a situational factor (temporary or not pervasive in its effects) or a cultural issue (more habitual, universal, and pervasive)


What does EST stand for and how is it different from evidence-based practice?

Empirically supported therapy. EST's are more scientifically valid, for example, their methodology tends to be most rigorous, but the EBPP approach is favoured by some clinicians and researchers who think the EST approach is to stifling for real world application


Compare the American "melting pot" with the Canadian "cultural mosaic"

The assumption is that the US promotes integration of cultures whereas Canadians encourage preservation of ethnic culture. However, the US more closely resembles the Canadian mosaic metaphor then the melting pot. In both countries, the tendency is for ethnic groups to retain their distinct individual identity


The looking glass through which clients see the world. A belief system about the nature of the universe, it's perceived effect on human behaviour, and ones place in the universe. A fundamental core set of assumptions explaining cultural forces, the nature of humankind, the nature of good and evil, luck, feet, spirits, the power of significant others, the role of time, and the nature of our physical and natural resources



What is the worldview of the counselor? Why is it important?

The worldview of counsellors is how they see the world, which is important because it may involve different belief systems based on different assumptions and explanations then their clients. Communication misunderstandings can easily occur.


What are some of the barriers that clients from ethnic minorities face when seeking counselling services? (7)

1. Language

2. Unemployment-many immigrants come to Canada with a loss of status, as credentials required in their home country may not be accepted in Canada

3. Poverty-many immigrants may have been forced to leave their possessions and wealth behind and others may be required to take entry level or minimum-wage jobs

4. Discrimination

5. Culture shock

6. Parent-child relationship problems- children me adapt more quickly than their parents and parents may adapted by over reliance on their children which may lead them to become overprotective

7. Male-female role adjustment issues


Explain how counsellors should develop cross-a cultural understanding as it applies to personal priorities, values, and beliefs

Counsellors may find themselves working with clients whose views and attitudes on such major issues as gender equality, spirituality, and sexuality differ shortly from their own. When counsellors understand their clients priorities, they are in a much better position to support decision-making and problem-solving that is consistent with their clients beliefs. Counters need to be self-aware and to have self-discipline in keeping their personal views and values from becoming a burden to their clients. If counsellors cannot work with reasonable objectivity, referral may be necessary

Even when counsellors meet clients with similar backgrounds to one another, it is important that they remain open to individual differences. If counsellors assume that they understand, they may deny the clients the opportunity to tell their story


Holding firm judgements about people based on preconceptions


Counsellors are expected by their codes of ethics to appreciate and respect uniqueness and individuality of each client and to avoid being blinded by stereotyping groups and cultures. It is critical that counsellors realize and accept that people from different cultures have different standards of behavior, and that they often responds to you or interpret actions in widely divergent ways


The inclination to judge others negatively in relation to one's own cultural values and norms


Counsellors who work from and ethnocentric perspective may be predisposed to discount the importance of cultural traditions and beliefs, they may see cultural traits as something to be treated or changed because they use their traditions, standards, and majority norms as a measure of normal behavior.


Peterson say's "counselors who presume that they are free of racism seriously underestimate the impact of their own socialization". Do you agree or disagree with the statement?

I agree. Culturally competent counsellors are committed to understanding their own ethnic and value-based. They must consider how factors such as their own race, culture, sexual orientation, and religion shape their worldview and impact their work with clients who are different from them. They strive to develop and demonstrate understanding and comfort with diversity

Counsellors should not work from and ethnocentric perspectives, but should except that other cultures and lifestyles are equally valid, just different


In what ways do diversity issues, such as ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, affect a counsellors effectiveness?

Answers should explore ideas related to concepts of ethnocentrism, selective perception, bias, objectivity, and stereotyping. Counsellor should remain open to individual differences within cultures and from themselves


When providing counselling services to individuals from specific cultural groups, it is important for the counsellor to assess the clients level of identification with his or her cultural group or ethnic traditions. Using your own example, explain the potential problems of oversimplifying or overgeneralizing cultural issues in working with clients.

Although individuals within cultural or other groups tend to share certain values and customs, individual differences may prevail, and any one person within the group may or may not conform to the cultural norms. There may also be why diversity within the group.

Counsellors should consider two questions:
1. To what extent does the client hold cultural values and traditions consistent with his or her own culture of origin?
2. What cultural values and traditions are unique to this individual or different from their own culture of origin?

Oversimplifying or overgeneralizing cultural issues can lead to stereotyping. Using a "multicultural cookbook and cope with each group receiving a recipe that includes A checklist of the groups characteristics and some instructions regarding how the counselling should proceed may result in stereotypes and in a failure to recognize individual differences. Within-group cultural differences may actually exceed between-group differences

Original example: a counsellor working with a first nations client may assume that this client relies on traditional healing practises such as visiting a sweat lodge, and fails to provide referral or advice on medications that may be helpful.


What does it mean to be culturally competent?

It means respecting and excepting diverse city and being sensitive and aware of your own culture as well as those of others. Competent counsellors don't just tolerate diverse city; rather, they welcome and value individual and cultural differences

Multicultural counselling competencies can be organized into three clusters: counsellor awareness of own values and biases, counsellor awareness of clients worldviews, and culturally appropriate intervention strategies, which in turn are detailed in terms of the counsellors attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and skills

Compton counsellors deepen their understanding of different cultures through books, films, courses, and seminars, but most importantly experiential learning


Failing to recognize and then deal with the influence of culture. Provides an avenue through which possible biases can influence counselling

Culturally-blind counselling

Will not lead to the best counselling service, and might even be considered a measure of incompetence


A diverse society, where the people in it believe all kinds of different things and tolerate each other's beliefs even when they don't match their own

A state of society in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups maintain and develop their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common civilization

Pluralistic society