Flashcards in Unit 11: Groups In Counselling Deck (40):
Groups that focus on task accomplishment and on interpersonal relationships. Group members are likely to learn from the experience how one's behaviour in a group influences others behaviour and vice versa. Similar to some forms of family counselling in which the emphasis is both on how the system operates and on how an individual within the system functions
T-group or training group
An extended, one-session group experience that breaks down defensive barriers that individuals may otherwise use. It usually lasts for a minimum of 24 hours. Have been used successfully in working with substance abuse or's and rehabilitation programs and well-functioning individuals another group counselling settings.
Groups that are organized by an established, professional helping organization or individual. Focus on a particular concern or problem and centre around topics that are physical, emotional, or social
Groups that originate spontaneously and stress their autonomy and internal group resources. They usually develop spontaneously, Centre on a single topic, and are led by a layperson with little formal group training but with experience in the stressful event that brought the group together. Basically work to help their members gain greater control of their lives
Defined as two or more people interacting together to achieve a goal for their mutual benefit
Identify five advantages of using groups in counselling
1. Instillation of hope: Assurance that treatment will work for example
2. Universality: The realization that one is not alone, unique, or abnormal
3. Imparting of information: instruction about mental health, mental illness, and how to deal with life problems for example
4. Altruism: example, sharing experiences and thoughts with others, helping them by giving of oneself, working for the common good
5. Development of socializing techniques: example, interacting with others and learning social skills as well as more about oneself in social situations
6. Imitative behaviour
7. Interpersonal learning
8. Group cohesiveness
Identify five disadvantages of using groups in counselling
1. Some client concerns and personalities are not well-suited for groups
2. The problems of some individuals may not be dealt with in enough depth within groups
3. Group pressure may force a client to take action, such as self-disclosure, before being ready
4. Groups may lapse into a groupthink mentality, in which stereotypical, defensive, and stale thought processes become the norm and creativity and problem-solving or squelched
5. Individuals may try to use groups for escape or selfish purposes and disrupt the group process
Describe a case a situation where it would be advantageous to use a group, and a case situation where it would be inappropriate to use a group
Advantageous: for persons who have sustained heart attacks to help them deal better with stressors in their lives because they can learn how other people are dealing with the problem and feel like they are not alone
Inappropriate: A person who has just suffered a sexual assault and is not yet ready to open up in a group setting.
Or, a person whose personality disorder causes them to be very disruptive of others and may disrupt the group process
A mentality in which stereotypical, defensive, and stale thought processes become the norm and creativity and problem-solving are squelched
These boobs are sometimes known as guidance or educational groups and our preventative and instructional in nature. Their purpose is to teach group participants how to deal with a potential threat, a developmental life event, or an immediate life crisis. Often found in educational settings, such as schools, but are increasingly being used in other settings such as hospitals, mental health centers, social service agencies, and universities
These groups are sometimes known as interpersonal problem-solving groups, and they seek to help group participants resolve the usual, yet often difficult, problems of living through interpersonal support and problems. And additional goal is to help participants develop their existing interpersonal problem-solving competencies so they may be better able to handle future problems
These groups are sometimes known as personality reconstruction groups, and are set up to help individual group members remediate in-depth psychological problems. Because the depth and extent of the psychological disturbance is significant, the goal is to aid each individual to reconstruct major personality dimensions
These groups help members apply the principles and processes of group dynamics to improve practises and accomplish identified work goals.
Compare and contrast the general types of counselling groups
Group counselling and psychoeducational groups are hard to distinguish. Group counselling is more direct than a psychoeducational groups in attempting to modify attitudes and behaviors. Group counselling is conducted in a small, intimate setting, whereas a psycho educational group is more applicable to room-size environments. They sometimes overlap.
There is overlap sometimes in group counselling and group psychotherapy, but the emphasis on major reconstruction of personality die mentions in psychotherapy groups usually distinguishes the two.
What are the five stages of group process?
Forming, storming, norming, performing, mourning
In this stage of group development, the foundation is usually lay down for what is to come and who will be considered in or out of group deliberations. Members express anxiety and dependency and talk about non-problematic issues
In this stage of group development, considerable turmoil and conflict usually occur, as they do in adolescents. Conflict at this time forces group members to make them basic decisions about the degree of independence and interdependence in their relationship with one another. Group member seek to establish themselves in the hierarchy of the group and deals especially with issues concerning anxiety, power, and future expectations
In this group development stage, the group often generates enthusiasm and cohesion, goals and ways of working together are decided on
In this stage of group development, group members become involved with each other and their individual and collective goals. This is the time when the group is productive
In this stage of group development, the group comes to an end, and members say goodbye to one another and the group experience
Which stage do you consider the most critical for establishing group success and why?
I think the storming stage is the most important because if the group cannot get over this stage they won't move on to norming and performing. Group members get used to one another and the hierarchy is established during the stage sets the context for the rest of the stages.
A group in which members are more alike then unalike
Groups in which members are more unalike than alike
These groups admit new members after they have started
These groups do not admit new members after they have started
When what has been said within the group setting will not be revealed outside
When a group has 2 leaders. One leader can work with the group while the other monitors the group process
A multidimensional process that consists of group members responding to the verbal messages and nonverbal behaviors of one another. Helps group members gauge the impact of their actions on others and attempt new behaviours
A leadership quality that includes clarifying, explaining, and providing a cognitive framework for change
Describe the issue of selection and preparation of group members
Selection and preparation of group members: A leader must decide which individuals to include in a group because some members are not appropriate candidates. A leader can conduct pre-group interviews and training. During a pre-group interview, Group members should be selected who's needs and goals are compatible with the established goals of the group and who will not impede the group process and who's well-being will not be jeopardized by being in a group. Pre-group training in which members learn more about a group and what is expected of them, provides important information for participants and give them a chance to lower their anxiety.
Before the group begins, group members and leaders should be informed as much as possible about group process or how group member interactions influence the development of the group. Providing a set of expectations for participants prior to their initiation into a group improves the possibility of members having a successful group experience.
Group leaders must model the behaviour as they wish to emulate
Group leaders must know how to handle challenges to their leadership and resistance from individual group members or the group as a whole
Describe the issue of group size and duration
A group size is determined by its purpose and preference. Large groups are less likely to spotlight the needs of individual members and therefore there is an optical number of people that should be involved, usually 6 to 8 group members, but if there are longer durations, up to 10 people may productively be included.
In general, the group should have enough people to afford ample interaction so it doesn't drag on and yet be small enough to give everyone a chance to participate frequently without losing the sense of group
Describe the issue of open versus closed groups
Open-ended groups are able to replace lost members rather quickly and maintain an optimal size. Closed ended groups, although not as flexible in size, promote more cohesiveness among members and may be productive in helping members achieve stated goals
Describe the issue of confidentiality in groups
Groups function best when members feel a sense of confidentiality, that what they say within the group setting will not be revealed outside. To promote a sense of confidentiality and build trust, a group leader must be active and should bring up the subject of confidentiality during the prescreening interview and stress it's importance during the first meeting of the group and on a regular basis thereafter
The group leader should also protect its members by clearly defining what confidentiality is and the importance and difficulty of enforcing it
Describe the issue of physical structure in groups
The setting where a group is conducted is either an asset or a liability. there is a need for a physical structure that ensures the safety and throat of group members. The furnishings of the space should be attractive and the way the group is assembled, preferably in a circle, can facilitate the functioning of the group
Describe the issue of co-leaders in groups
It is not necessary, but such an arrangement can be beneficial especially if the group is large. 1 leader can work with the group while the other monitors the group process, may also be beneficial when an inexperienced leader and experienced leader are working together and the inexperienced leader can learn from the other.
Successful, experienced coleaders should possess a similar philosophical and operational style, have similar experience and confidence, establish a model relationship for effective human interaction, be aware of splitting and member loyalty ties to 1 L or the other and help the group deal with this, and agree on counselling goals in the process is to achieve them so that power struggles are avoided.
Should sit opposite each other so that leader responsibility and observation are maximized
Describe the issue of self disclosure in groups
Self disclosure is dependent on the trust that group members have for one another and builds on itself. During the first stages of the group, it may have to be encouraged. Leaders should use self disclosure in the beginning sessions of a group to serve as a model for others and promote the process
Describe the issue of feedback in groups
When given honestly and with care, group members can gauge the impact of their actions on others and attempt new behaviors. Feedback should be beneficial to the receiver and not serve the needs of the giver, more effective when it is based on describable behavior, in the early stages positive feedback is more beneficial and more readily accepted the negative feedback, most effective when immediately follows a stimulus behaviour and his validated by others, greater benefit when the receiver is open and trusts the giver
Describe the issue of follow up in groups
Used in a group to keep in touch with members after the group has terminated to determine how well they are progressing on personal or group goals. Often group leaders failed to conduct a proper follow-up especially in short-term counselling groups. Helps group members and leaders assess what they gained in the group experience and allows the leader to refer a group member for help, if appropriate. Should be conducted about three months after termination
What are four leadership qualities that have a positive effect on the outcome of groups if they are not used excessively?
1. Caring: the more, the better
2. Meaning attribution: includes clarifying, explaining, and providing a cognitive framework for change
3. Emotional stimulation: involves activity, challenging, risk-taking, self-disclosure
4. Executive function: entails developing norms, structuring, and suggesting procedures
Good group leaders also behave with intentionality, are committed to self-improvement to become effective as human beings. Personal qualities that are related to effective group leadership are presence, personal power, courage, willingness to confront oneself, sincerity, authenticity, enthusiasm, sense of identity, and inventiveness/creativity.
Effective group leaders are also well educated in group theory, practice, and techniques