Unit 5-Chapters 10, 11, and 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5-Chapters 10, 11, and 17 Deck (82):
1

Early scientist proposed ideas about...

...evolution

2

Theories of geologic change set the stage for...

...Darwin''s Theory

3

Evolution

the rpocess of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors

4

Species

a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can reproduce and have fertile offspring

5

Fossils

traces of organisms that existed in the past

6

catastrophism

states that natural disasters such as floods and volcanic eruptions have happened often during Earth's long history

7

gradualism

a principle that states that the changes in landforms result from slow changes over a long period of time

8

uniformitarianism

proposes that present geologic processes are they key to the past

9

Darwin observed differences among...

...island species

10

darwin observed ___ and ___ evidence supporting an ancient earth

fossil; geographic

11

variation

the difference in the physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals in the group to which it belongs

12

adaptation

a feature that allows an organism to better survive in it environment
can lead to genetic change in a population over time

13

several key insights led to Darwin's idea for...

...natural selection

14

Natural selection explains how...

...evolution can occur

15

Natural selection acts on...

...existing variation

16

artificial selection

process by which hunmans change a species by breeding it for certain traits
humans act as the selective agent

17

heritability

the ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next

18

natural selection

a mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals without the beneficial adaptation

19

population

all the individuals of a species that live in an area

20

fitness

a measure of the ability to survive and produce more offspring relative to other members of the population in a given environment

21

evidence for evolution in Darwin's time came from...

...several sources

22

structural patterns are clues to the...

...history of a species

23

biogeography

the study of the distribution of organisms around the world

24

homologous structures

features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functions
strong evidence for common descent

25

analogous structures

structures that perform a similar function but are not similar in origin-different structures

26

vestigial structures

remnants of organs or structures that had a function in an early ancestor

27

molecular and genetic evidence support..

...fossil and anatomical evidence

28

evolution unites...

...all fields of biology

29

paleontology

the study of fossils or extinct organisms

30

Fossils provide a record of...

...evolution

31

genetic variation in a population increases the...

...chance that some individuals will survive

32

genetic variation comes from...

...several sources

33

gene pool

the combined alleles of all of the individuals in a population

34

allele frequency

a measure of how common a certain allele is in the population

35

natural selection acts on...

...distribution of traits

36

natural selection can change the...

...distribution of a trait in one o three ways

37

normal distribution

the frequency of a trait is highest near the mean value and decreases toward each extreme end range

38

microevolution

the observable change in the allele frequencies of a population over time

39

directional selection

a type of selection that favors phenotypes at one extreme of a trait's range

40

stabilizing selection

the intermediate is favored and becomes more common in the population

41

disruptive selection

a type of selection that favors both extreme phenotypes

42

gene flow is the...

...movement of alleles between populations

43

genetic drift is a...

...change in allele requencies due to chance

44

sexual selection occurs when...

...certain traits increase mating success

45

gene flow

the movement of alleles from one population to another

46

genetic drift

change in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occuring mosst commonly in small populations

47

bottleneck effect

genetic drift that occurs after an event greatly reduces the size of a population

48

founder effect

genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area

49

sexual selection

occurs when certain traits increase mating success

50

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes...

...populations that are not evolving

51

The Hardy-Weinberg equatio is used to...

...predict genotype frequencies in a population

52

there are ___ factors that lead to evolution

five

53

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

very large population (no genetic drift can occur)
No emmigration or immigration (No gene flow can occur)
No mutations (No new alleles can be added to the gene pool)
Random mating (No sexual selection can occur)
No natural selection (All traits must equally aid in survival

54

the isolation of populations can lead to

...speciation

55

populations can become isolated...

...in several ways

56

reproductive isolation

occurs when members of diferent populations can no longer mate successfully with one another

57

speciation

the rise of two or more species from one existing species

58

behavioral isolation

isolation caused by differences in courtship or mating behaviors

59

geographic isolation

isolation that is caused by physical barriers that divide a population into two or more groups

60

temporal isolation

isolation caused when timing prevents reproduction between populations

61

evolution through natural selection is...

...not random

62

species can...

...shape each other over time

63

species can become...

...extinct

64

speciation often occurs...

...in patterns

65

convergent evolution

evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species

66

divergent evolution

when closely related species evolve in different directions and come increasingly different

67

coevolution

the process in which two or more species evolve in reponse to changes in each other

68

extinction

the elimination of a species from earth

69

punctuated equilibrium

states that episodes of speciation occur suddenly in geologic time and are followed by long periods of little evolutionary change

70

adaptive radiation

the diversification of one ancestral species into many descendent species

71

Linnaeus developed the...

...scientific naming system still used today

72

Linnaeus' classification system has...

...seven levels

73

The Linnaean classification system has...

...limitations

74

taxonomy

the science of naming and classifying

75

taxon

a group of organisms in a classification system

76

binomial nomenclature

a system that gives each species a two-part scientific name using Latin words

77

genus

includes one or more physically similar species that are thought to be closely related

78

classification is always...

...a work in progress

79

the three domains in the tree of life are...

...Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

80

Bacteria

includes singlie-celled prokaryotes in the kingdom Bacteria

81

Archaea

single-celled prokaryotes in the kingdom Archaea

82

Eukarya

made up of all organisms with eukaryotic cells