Unit 6- Chapters 18 and 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6- Chapters 18 and 19 Deck (61):
1

Viruses, bacteria, viroids, and prions can all...

...cause infection

2

Virus

An infectious particle made only of a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

3

Pathogen

any living organism or particle that can cause an infectious disease
same as infectious agent

4

Viroids

infectious particles that cause disease in plants

5

Prion

an infectious particle made only of proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly

6

Viruses differ in...

...shape and in ways of entering host cells

7

Viruses cause...

...two types of infections

8

Capsid

a protein shell that surrounds the genetic materail in a virus

9

Bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

10

Lytic Infection

an infectious pathway in which the host cell bursts, releasing thenew viral offspring intho the host's system

11

Lysogenic Infection

a phage combines its DNA into the host cell's DNA

12

Prophage

the phage DNA inserted into the host cell's DNA

13

Viruses cause many...

...infectious diseases

14

Vaccinesare made from...

...weakened pathogens

15

Epidemic

a rapid outbreak of an infection that affects many people

16

Vaccine

a substance that stimulates the body's own immune response against invasion by microbes

17

retrovirus

a virus that contains RNA and uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a DNA copy

18

Prokaryots are widespread...

...on earth

19

Bacteria an archaea are...

...structually similar but have different molecular characteristics

20

Bacteria have variou strategies for...

...survival

21

obligate anaerobe

poisoned by oxygen

22

obligate aerobe

organisms that need oxygen

23

faculatative aerobe

organisms that can survive with and without oxygen

24

Plasmid

a small piece of genetic material that can replicate separately from the prokaryote's main chromosome

25

Flagellum

a long, whip-like structure outside of a cell that is used for movement

26

conjugation

the process by which prokaryotes can exchange parts of their chromosome through a hollow bridge of pili formed to connect two or more cells

27

endospore

a specialized cell with a thick portective wall

28

Prokaryotes provide...

...nutrients to humans and other animals

29

Prokaryotes play important...

...roles in ecosystems

30

bioremediation

a process that uses microbes and other living things to break down pollutants

31

some bacteria cause...

...disease

32

antibiotics are used to fight...

...bacterial disease

33

Bacteria can...

...evolve resistance to antibiotics

34

Toxin

a poison released by an organism

35

Antibiotic

chemicals that kill or slowthe growth of bacteria

36

Protists can be...

...animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike

37

Protisit are difficult to...

...classify

38

protist

aeukaryots that is not an animal, a plant, or a fungus

39

animal-like protists move in...

...various ways

40

some animal-like protists cause...

...disease

41

protozoa

often used informally to describe the many phylaof animal-like protists
same as zooplankton

42

Pseudopod

"fake foot"
a temporary extension of cytoplasm and plasmamembrane that helps protozoa move and feed

43

Cillia

short, hairlike structures that cover some or all of cell surface and help the organism swim and capture food

44

plantlike protists can be...

...single-celled or multicellular

45

Many plantlike protists can reproduce both...

...sexually and a sexually

46

algae

photosynthetic plantlike protists

47

Slime molds and water molds are...

...funguslike protists

48

Slime molds

eukaryotic organisms that have both funguslike and animallike traits

49

water molds

funguslike protists that aremade up of branching strands of cells

50

Fungi are adpadted to absorb their food from...

...the environment

51

fungi come in many...

...shapes and sizes

52

fungi reproduce...

...sexually and asexually

53

chitin

a tough polysaccharide that is also found in the shells of insects and their close relatives

54

hyphae

bodies of multicellular fungi are made of long strands

55

mycelium

groups of hyphae in long tangles masses

56

fruiting body

a reproductive structure of a fungus that grows above ground

57

Mycorrhizae

mutualistic partnerships between fungi and the roots of certain plants

58

sporangi

spore-forming structures at thhe tips of their hyphae

59

Fungi may be...

...decomposers, pathogens, or mutalists

60

fungi are studied for...

...many purposes

61

lichen

a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and algae or phtosynthetic bacteria