Flashcards in Unit 6- Chapters 18 and 19 Deck (61):
Viruses, bacteria, viroids, and prions can all...
An infectious particle made only of a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
any living organism or particle that can cause an infectious disease
same as infectious agent
infectious particles that cause disease in plants
an infectious particle made only of proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly
Viruses differ in...
...shape and in ways of entering host cells
...two types of infections
a protein shell that surrounds the genetic materail in a virus
viruses that infect bacteria
an infectious pathway in which the host cell bursts, releasing thenew viral offspring intho the host's system
a phage combines its DNA into the host cell's DNA
the phage DNA inserted into the host cell's DNA
Viruses cause many...
Vaccinesare made from...
a rapid outbreak of an infection that affects many people
a substance that stimulates the body's own immune response against invasion by microbes
a virus that contains RNA and uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a DNA copy
Prokaryots are widespread...
Bacteria an archaea are...
...structually similar but have different molecular characteristics
Bacteria have variou strategies for...
poisoned by oxygen
organisms that need oxygen
organisms that can survive with and without oxygen
a small piece of genetic material that can replicate separately from the prokaryote's main chromosome
a long, whip-like structure outside of a cell that is used for movement
the process by which prokaryotes can exchange parts of their chromosome through a hollow bridge of pili formed to connect two or more cells
a specialized cell with a thick portective wall
...nutrients to humans and other animals
Prokaryotes play important...
...roles in ecosystems
a process that uses microbes and other living things to break down pollutants
some bacteria cause...
antibiotics are used to fight...
...evolve resistance to antibiotics
a poison released by an organism
chemicals that kill or slowthe growth of bacteria
Protists can be...
...animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike
Protisit are difficult to...
aeukaryots that is not an animal, a plant, or a fungus
animal-like protists move in...
some animal-like protists cause...
often used informally to describe the many phylaof animal-like protists
same as zooplankton
a temporary extension of cytoplasm and plasmamembrane that helps protozoa move and feed
short, hairlike structures that cover some or all of cell surface and help the organism swim and capture food
plantlike protists can be...
...single-celled or multicellular
Many plantlike protists can reproduce both...
...sexually and a sexually
photosynthetic plantlike protists
Slime molds and water molds are...
eukaryotic organisms that have both funguslike and animallike traits
funguslike protists that aremade up of branching strands of cells
Fungi are adpadted to absorb their food from...
fungi come in many...
...shapes and sizes
...sexually and asexually
a tough polysaccharide that is also found in the shells of insects and their close relatives
bodies of multicellular fungi are made of long strands
groups of hyphae in long tangles masses
a reproductive structure of a fungus that grows above ground
mutualistic partnerships between fungi and the roots of certain plants
spore-forming structures at thhe tips of their hyphae
Fungi may be...
...decomposers, pathogens, or mutalists
fungi are studied for...