Unit 2- Chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16 Flashcards Preview

Biology Honors > Unit 2- Chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2- Chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16 Deck (104):
1

ecology

the study of interactions among living things and between living things and their surroundings

2

levels of organization

organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome

3

community

a group of different species that live together in on area

4

ecosystem

includes all of the organisms as well as climate, soil, water, rocks, and other nonliving things in a given area

5

biome

a major regional or global community of organisms

6

biotic factors

living things (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria

7

abiotic

nonliving things (soil, temperature, moisture, wind, sunlight)

8

biodiversity

the assortment of living things in an ecosystem

9

keystone species

a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem

10

producer

organisms that get their energy from nonliving resources
same as autotrophs

11

autotrophs

organisms that get their energy from nonliving resources
same as producers

12

consumers

organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources
same as heterotrophs

13

heterotrophs

organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources
same as consumers

14

chemosynthesis

process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light, as an energy source

15

food chain

a sequence that links species by their feeding relationships

16

herbivores

eat only plants

17

carnivores

eat only animals

18

omnivores

eat plants and animals

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detritivores

organisms that eat dead organic matter

20

decomposers

detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds

21

five types of consumers

herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, decomposers

22

specialist

is a consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or a very small number

23

generalist

consumers that have a varying diet

24

trophic levels

levels of nourishment in a food chain
show energy flow

25

food web

a model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem

26

biomass

a measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area

27

energy pyramid

a diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other trophic levels

28

habitat

can be described as all of the biotic and abiotic factors in the area where an organism lives

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ecological niche

composed of all of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce

30

competitive eclusion

when two species are competing for the same resources, one species will be better suited to the niche, and the other species will be pushed into another niche or become extinct

31

ecological equivalents

species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions

32

competition

when two organisms fight for the same limited resourse

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predation

process by which one organism captures and feeds upon another organism

34

symbiosis

a close ecological relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live in direct contact with one another

35

mutualism

an interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit

36

commensalism

a relationship between two organisms in which one recieves an ecological benefits from another, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed

37

parasitism

a relationship when one organism benefits while the other is harmed

38

population density

a measurement of the number of individuals living in a defined space

39

population dispersion

the way which individuals of a population are spread in an area or volume
1. clumped
2. uniform
3. random

40

survivorship curve

a generalized diagram showing the number of surviving members over time from a measured set of births

41

immigration

the movement of individuals into a population from another population

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emigration

the movement of individuals out of a population and into another population

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exponential growth

occurs when a population size increase dramatically over a period of time

44

logistic growth

occurs when a population begins with a period of slow growth followed by a brief period of exponential growth before leveling off at a stable size

45

carrying capacity

the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that the environment can normally and consistently support

46

population crash

the dramatic decline in the size of a population over a short period of time

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limiting factor

the factor that has the greatest effect in keeping down the size of a population

48

density-dependent limiting factors

limiting factors taht are affected by the number of individuals in a given area

49

density-independent limiting factors

the aspects of the environment that limit a population's growth regardless of the density of the population

50

canopy

the uppermost branches of the trees

51

grassland

an area where the primary plant life is grass

52

desert

recieves less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation each year

53

deciduous

trees that have adapted to winter temperatures by dropping their leaves

54

coniferous

trees that retain their needles all year

55

taiga

the boreal forest
located in cooler climates

56

tundra

located byond the taiga in far northern latitudes

57

chaparral

Mediterranean shrubland
hot dry summers and cool, moist winters

58

nonrenewable resource

used faster than they are formed

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renewable resources

cannot be used up or can replenish themselves over time

60

ecological footprint

the amount of land necessary to produce and maintain enough food and water, shelter, energy, and waste
for one person???

61

pollution

any undesirable factor or pollutant, that is added to the air, water, or soil

62

smog

a type of air pollution caused by the interaction of sunlight with pollutants produced by fossil fuel emissions

63

particulates

microscopic bits of dust, metal, and unburned fuel
produced by many different industrial processes

64

acid rain

a type of precipitatioin produced when pollutants in the warer cycle cause rain pH to drop below normal level

65

greenhouse effect

occurs when carbon dioxide, water, and methane molecules absorb energy reradiated by earth's surface and slow the release of this energy from Earth's atmosphere

66

global warming

the trend of increasing global temperatures

67

indicator species

a species that provides a sign, or indication of the quality of the ecosystem's environmental conditions
same as bioindicator

68

biommagnification

a pollutant that moves up the food chain as predators eat prey, accumulating in higher concentrations in the bodies of predators

69

habitat fragmentation

occurs when a barrier forms that prevents an organism from accessing its entire home range

70

introduced species

any organism that was brought to an ecosystem as the result of human actions

71

ecologists study...

...environments at different levles of organization

72

ecological research methods include...

...observation, experimentation, and modeling

73

an ecosystem includes...

...both biotic and abiotic factors

74

changing one factor in an ecosystem can...

...affect many other factors

75

producers providev

...energy for other organisms in an ecosystem

76

almost all produces obtain energy from...

...sunlight

77

a food chain is a...

...model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships

78

a food web shows...

...a complex network of feeding relationships

79

water cycles through...

...the environment

80

elements essential for life also...

...cycle through the environment

81

hydrogogic cycle

the circular pathway of water on earth from the atmosphere to the surface, below ground, and back
also called water cycle

82

biogeochemical cycle

the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving, parts of an ecosystem

83

nitrogen fixation

the process by which certain types of bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into nitrogen compounds

84

an energy pyramid shows...

...the distribution of energy among trophic levels

85

other pyramid models illustrate an ecosystem's...

...biomass and distribution of organisms

86

a habitat differs from a...

...niche

87

resource availability gives...

...structure to a community

88

competition and predation are two important ways in which organisms...

...interact

89

symbiosis is a...

...close relationship between species

90

population density is the...

...number of individuals that live in a defined area

91

geographic dispersion of a population shows...

...how individuals in a population are spaced

92

survivorship curves help to describe the...

...reoroductive strategy of a species

93

Changes in a population's size are determind by...

...immigrations, births, emigration, and deaths

94

population growth is based on...

...available resources

95

ecological factors limit...

...population growth

96

earth has _____ major biomes

6

97

polar ice caps and mountains are ___ considered biomes

not

98

pullutants accumulate in the...

...air

99

air pollution is...

...changing earth's biosphere

100

water pollution affects...

...ecosystems

101

biomagnification causes...

...accumulations of toxins in the food chain

102

preserving biodiversity is important to the...

...future of the biosphere

103

loss of habitat...

...eliminates species

104

introduced species can...

...disrupt stable relationships in an ecosystem