Unit 8- Chapters 23 and 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8- Chapters 23 and 24 Deck (75):
1

Animals are the most...

...physically diverse kigndom of organisms

2

all animals share...

...a set of characteristics

3

collagen

a three-stranded protein unique to animal

4

homeotic

genes that are a class of genes that control early development

5

homeobox

defini the head-to-tail pattern of development in animal embryos

6

Each animal phylum has...

...a unique body plan

7

animals are grouped using...

...a variety of criteria

8

A comparison of structure and genetics reveals...

... the evolutionary history of animals

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vertebrate

an animal with an internal segmented backbone

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invertebrate

an animal without internal segmented backbones

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phylum

a group of animals defined by structural and functional characteristics that are different from every other animal group

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bilateral symmetry

symmetry that divides an animal equally along only one plane

13

radial symmetry

symmetry that divides an animal in a circle around a central axis

14

protostome

when the mouth is formed first

15

deuterostomes

when the anus is formed first

16

sponges have... but no...

...specialized cells ...tissues

17

Cnidarians are the...

...oldest existing animals that have specialized tissues

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sessile

unable to move

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filter feeders

eat by straining particles from the water

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polyp

cylindrical tubes with mouth and tentacles facing upward

21

medusa

umbrella-shaped with mouths and tentacles downward

22

mesoglea

jellylike material that separates the two tissue layers of cnidarians

23

nematocyst

the stinging structures foun on both sea anemones and jellyfish

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gastrovascular cavity

saclike digestive space in a cnidarians

25

flatworms are...

...simple bilateral animals

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molluska are...

...diverse animals

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annelids have...

...segmented bodies

28

flatworms (3 types)

planarians, flukes, tapeworms

29

complete digestive tract

consists of two openings (anus and mouth) at opposite ends of a continuous tube

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radula

a filelike feeding organ

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hemocoel

consists of spaces between cells within the animal's tissues

32

segmentation

refers to the repeated sectinos of an annelid's long body that contain a complex set of body structures

33

coelom

a fluid-filled space that is completely surrounded by muscle

34

roundworms shed their...

...stiff outer skeletons as they grow

35

many roundworms are...

...parasites

36

cuticle

made of chitin and must be shed whenever the animal grows larger

37

pseudocoelem

not completely lined by muscle

38

echinoderms have...

...radial symmetry

39

there are ___ classes of echinoderms

five

40

ossicle

interlocking calcium-based plates making up the internal skeleton of an echinoderms

41

water vascular system

a series of water-filled radial canals that extend along each arm from the ring canal surrounding the central disk

42

arthropod features are...

...highly adapted

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arthropod exoskeletons serve...

...a variety of functions

44

arthropod diversity evolved over...

...millions of years

45

arthropod

an invertebrate animal with an exoskeleton made of chitin; a series of paired jointed appendages; and segmented body parts

46

exoskeleton

an external skeleton that supports the animal's tissues against gravity

47

chitin

a long organic molecule made of sugars that is arranged in layers

48

appendage

an extension of an organism's body

49

segmentation

describes how an arthropod's body parts are divided into similar sections that have each evolved for a different function

50

arthropods (5 groups)

trilobites
crustaceans
chelicerates (arachnids)
insects
myriapods

51

crustaceans evolved as...

...marine arthropods

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crustacean appendages can...

...take many forms

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there are many different types of...

...crustaceans

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crustaceans

a group of arthropods that have two distinct body sections, a hard exoskeleton

55

cephalothorax

the region of an organism in which the head and trunk region are combined into one long section

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abdomen

rear portion of the organism

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carapace

covers the sides of the body and protects the gills

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mandibles

highly adapted appendages that crush and bite food before ingestion

59

arachnids are the...

...largest group of chelicerates

60

arachnids have evolved into a...

...diverse group

61

chelicerates

arthropods that lack antennae and have six pairs of appendages, which incle four pairs of walking legs

62

arachnids

a terresrial group of chelicerates characterized by eight legs, fanglike pincers that inject venom, and the ability to produce silk

63

book lungs

structures built of many thin, hollow sheets of tissue that look like the pages of a book

64

spiracles

tiny holes on the abdomen that open and close to allow oxygen to enter

65

tracheae

carry oxygen directly to the arachnid's tissues

66

insects are the dominant...

...terrestrial arthropods

67

insects undergo...

...metamorphosis

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insects have adapted to...

...life on land

69

incomplete metamorphosis

direct developmet
egg to nymph to adult
nymph looks similar to adult

70

complete metamorphosis

young insects do not look like adults but molt and change
egg to larva to pupa to adult

71

pupa

an inactive form of an insect

72

arthropods and humans share...

...many of the same resources

73

some arthropods cna spread..

...human diseases

74

insecticide

a chemical compound that kills insects and other arthropods

75

vector

an organism that carries a disease from one host to another