Unit 7- Chapters 20, 21, 22 Flashcards Preview

Biology Honors > Unit 7- Chapters 20, 21, 22 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7- Chapters 20, 21, 22 Deck (67):
1

Plant

Multicellular eukaryotes
Produce their own food through photosynthesis
Adapted to life on land

2

Cuticle

A waxy waterproof layer helps hold in moosture

3

Stomata

Tiny holes in the cuticle

4

Vascular system

A collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from the roots and disperse sugars down from the leaves

5

Lignin

Hardens the cell walls of some vascular tissues

6

Pollen grain

Two-celled structure that contains a cell that will divide to form sperm

7

Seed

A storage device for a plant embryo

8

Land plants evolved from...

...green algae

9

Plants have adaptions that allow them...

...to live on land

10

Plants evolve with...

...other organisms in their environment

11

Mosses and their relatives are...

...seedless nonvascular plants

12

Club mosses and ferns are...

...seedless vascular plants

13

Seed plants include...

...cone-bearing plants and flowering plants

14

Pollination

Occurs when pollen meets female reproductive parts of the same plant species

15

Gymnosperm

A seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed in fruit

16

Angiosperm

A seed plant that has seeds enclosed in some type of fruit

17

Cone

The reproductive structure of most gymnosperms

18

Flower

The reproductive structure of flowering plants

19

Fruit

The mature ovary of a flower

20

Flowering plants have unique...

...adaptations that allow them to dominate in today's world

21

Botanists classify flowering plants into...

...two groups based on seed type

22

Flowering plants are also categorized by...

...stem type and lifespan

23

Cotyledon

An embryonic leaf inside a seed

24

Monocot

A flowering plant whose embryos have one seed leaf

25

Dicot

Flowering plants whose embryos have two seed leaves

26

Wood

a fibrous material made up pf dead cells that are part of the vascular system

27

Annual

Mature from seeds
Produce flowers
And die in one year

28

Biennial

Flowering plants that take two years to complete their life cycle

29

Perennial

Any flowering plant that lives for more than two years

30

Agriculture provides...

...stable food supplies for people in permanent settlements

31

Plant products are...

...important economic resources

32

Plant compounds are essential to...

...to modern medicine

33

Botany

The study of plants

34

Ethnobotany

Explores how people in different cultures use plants

35

Pharmacology

The study of drugs and their effects on the body

36

Alkaloids

Potent plant chemicals that contain
Nitrogen

37

Parenchyma cell

Most common type of cell
Stores starch oils and water
Thin walls and large fluid filled vacuoles
Photosynthesize

38

Plant tissues are made of...

...three basic cell types

39

Plant organs are made of...

...three tissue systems

40

Collenchyma cell

Cell walls that vary in cell wall thickness
Provide flexible support

41

Sclerenchyma cell

Strongest plant cell
Have a second cell wall made of lignin

42

Dermal tissue

Covers the outside of a plant
Protects it

43

Ground tissue

Makes up inside of plant
Provides support
Stores mayerials

44

Vascular tissue

Transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic compounds to all parts of a plant

45

Xylem

The vascular tissue that carriers water and dissolved mineral nutrients upward

46

Phloem

The vascular tissue that carries the products of photosynthesis through the plant

47

Water and dissolved minerals move...

...through xylem

48

Phloem carriers...

...sugars from photosynthesis throughout the plant

49

Cohesion-tension theory

Proposes that the physical properties of water allow the rise of water through a plant

50

Transpiration

Loss of water vapor from plants

51

Pressure-flow model

A theory that explains how food, or sap, moves through a plant

52

Roots...

...anchor plants and absorb mineral nutrients from soil

53

Stems...

...support plants, transport materials, and provide storage

54

Vascular cylinder

Made up of xylem and phloem
In center of root

55

Root hairs

Tiny projections of root cells

56

Root cap

A small cone of cells that protects the growing part of the root as it pushes through the soil

57

Meristem

Groups if cells that are the source of new cells

58

Fibrous root

Make up fine branches in which most of the roots are the same size

59

Taproot

Systems of roots that have a long, thick, vertical root with smaller branches

60

Primary growth

Makes stems grow taller or roots grow longer

61

Secondary growth

Adds to the width in the stems and roots of woody plants

62

Most leaves have...

...share similar structures

63

Most leaves are...

...specialized systems for photosynthesis

64

Blade

Usually broad and flat
Collects sunlight for plant

65

Petiole

Thin stalk that connects the blade to the stem

66

Mesophyll

Parenchyma tissue between the two dermal layers of a leaf

67

Guard cells

Two cells that surround each stoma
Can open and close by changing shape