Unit 1-Chapters 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1-Chapters 1 and 2 Deck (93):
1

biosphere

all living things and all the places thay are found

2

biodiversity

the variety of life across the biosphere

3

species

particular type of living things that can reproduce by interbreeding among themselves

4

biology

scientific study of all forms of life

5

organism

any individual living thing

6

4 characteristics of an organism

1. made up of one of more cells
2. use energy for life processes
3. repsond to the environment
4. have successful offspring

7

cell

basic unit of life

8

metabolism

all of the chemical processes that build up or break down materials

9

DNA

genetic material in a molecule (deoxyribonucleic acd)

10

system

an organized group of related parts

11

4 unifying themes of biology

1. systems of related parts
2. a structure that relates to its function
3. maintain homeostasis
4. evolution explains the unity and diversity of life

12

ecosystem

physical environment with different species that interact with oe another and with nonliving things

13

homeostasis

the maintainence of constant internal conditions

14

evolution

change in living things over time

15

adaptation

an inherited trait that gives an advantage to individual organisms and is passed on to future destinations

16

evolution accounts for...

unity and diversity in life

17

observation

includes using our sense to study the world, but it may also involve other tools

18

data

observations that can be analyzed (numbers)

19

hypothesis

proposed answer for a scientific question (if...then...because)

20

experiments

scientists study factore called independent and dependent variables to find cause-and-effect relationships

21

independent variable

a condition that is manipulated by the scientist

22

dependent variable

observed and measured during an experiment
show effect of independent variable

23

constant

a condition that is kept the same throughout the experiment

24

theory

proposed explantation for a wide range of observations and experimental results that is supported by a wide range of evidence

25

microscope

provide an enlarged image of an object

26

gene

a segment of DNA that stores genetic information

27

molecular genetics

study and manipulation of DNA on a molecular level

28

genomics

study and comparison of genomes both within and across species

29

biotechnology

use and applacation of living things and biological processes

30

transgenic

organisms that have genes from more than one species

31

atoms

smallest basic unit of matter

32

element

one particular type of an atom; can be broken down

33

compound

a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio

34

ionic bond

bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions

35

ion

an atom that has gained or lost one electron

36

covalent bond

a bond formed when atoms share a pair of electrons

37

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

38

hydrogen bond

an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom

39

cohesion

the attraction among molecules of a substance

40

adhesion

attraction among molecules of different substances

41

Hydrigen bonds are responsible for ... in water

1.high specific heat
2.adhesion
3.cohesion

42

solution

a mixture of substances that is the same throughout

43

solvent

the substance that is present in the greater amount
disolves another substance

44

solute

a substance that dissolves in a solvent

45

acid

compound that releases a proton (hydrogen ion H+) when it dissolves in water

46

base

compound that removes a proton (hydrogen ion H+) when it dissolves in water

47

pH

a solutions acidity/H+ concentration

48

monomer

a subunit in the complete molecule

49

polymer

a large molecule made of monomers bonded together

50

carbohydrate

molecules composed of carbon; hydrogen, and oxygen
source of energy

51

carbon

uniques bonding properties
4 bonding sites
straight, branched, and ring

52

lipid

nonpolar molecules
fats, oils, and cholesterol
source of energy and make up structure

53

fatty acid

chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms

54

protein

polymer of amino acids

55

amino acid

molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
20 different ones
bonded with peptide bonds

56

chemical reaction

change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds

57

reactants

substances changed during a chemical reaction

58

products

substances made by a chemical reaction

59

bond energy

amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms

60

equilibrium

when reactants and products are made at the same rate

61

activation energy

amount of energy needed to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start

62

exothermic

when a chemical reaction releases more energy than it absorbs

63

endothermic

when a chemical reaction abosorbs more energy than it releases

64

catalyst

a substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction
increases rate of reaction

65

enzyme

a catalyst for chemical reactions in living things

66

substrate

the specific reactants that an enzyme reacts on

67

Earth is home to...

...an incredible diversity of life

68

all organism share...

...certain characteristics

69

all levels of life have...

...systems of related parts

70

structure and ______ are related in biology

function

71

organisms must maintian...

...homeostasis to survive in diverse environments

72

evolution explains...

...the unity and diversity of life

73

biology is a process of...

...inquiry

74

biologists use...

...experiments to test hypothesis

75

a theory explains...

...a wide range of observations

76

imaging technologies provide...

...new views of life

77

complex systems are...

...modeled on computers

78

the tools of molecular genetics give rise to...

...new biological studies

79

your health and the health of the environment depend on...

...your knowledge of biology

80

biotechnology offers...

...great promise but also raises many issues

81

biology presents...

...many unanswered questions

82

living things consist of...

...atoms of different elements

83

ions from when...

...atoms gain or lose electrons

84

atoms share...

...pairs of electrons in covalent bonds

85

life depends on...

...hydrogen bonds in water

86

many compunds dissolve in...

...water

87

some compounds form...

...acids or bases

88

carbon atoms have...

...unique bonding properties

89

four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in...

...living things

90

bonds break and form during...

...chemical reactions

91

chemical reasctions release or absorb...

...energy

92

a catalyst lowers...

...activation energy

93

enzymes allow...

...chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions