Unit 9- Chapters 25 and 26 Flashcards Preview

Biology Honors > Unit 9- Chapters 25 and 26 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 9- Chapters 25 and 26 Deck (56):
1

the phylum chordata contains...

...all vertebrates and some invertebrates

2

all vertebrates share...

...common features

3

fossil evidence sheds light...

...on the orgins of vertebrates

4

chordates

share 4 features at some stage of their development
1) notocord
2) hollow nerve cord
3) pharyngeal slits
4) tail

5

notocord

a flexible skeletal support rod embedded in the animal's back

6

endoskeleton

an internal skeleton built of bone or cartilage

7

fiash are vertebrates with...

...gills and paired fins

8

jaws evolved from...

...gill supports

9

only ___ groups of jawed fish still exist

2

10

gill

large sheets of thin frilly tissue filled with capillaries that take in dissolved oxygen from the water and release carbon dioxide

11

countercurrent flow

the opposite movement of water against the flow of blood in the fish's gills

12

lateral line

a series of shallow canals on the sides of the fish made up of cells that are sensitive to small changes in water movement

13

operculum

covers the gills of all bony fish in a chamber covered by a protective plate

14

ray-fined fish have...

...a fan of bones in their fins

15

lobe-finned fish have...

...paired rounded fins supported by a single bone

16

ray-fin

fins that are supported by a fan-shaped array of bones

17

swim bladder

modified lungs that act as a buoyancy organ

18

lobe-fin

paired pectoral and pelvic fins that are round in shape

19

amphibians were the first animals with...

...four limbs

20

amphibians retuen to the water to...

...reproduce

21

modern amphibians can be divided into...

...3 groups

22

tetrapod

a vertebrate that has four limbs

23

amphibians

animals that can live both on land and in water

24

tadpole

aquatic larvae of frogs

25

amniotes can...

...retain moisture

26

amniotes do not need to...

...return to water to reproduce

27

amniote

a vertebrate tha has a thin, tough, membranous sace that encloses the embryo of fetus

28

keratin

a protein that binds to lipids inside the cell, forming a hydrophobic-or water repellent- layer that keeps the water inside the animal from reaching the skin

29

amniotic egg

an almost completely waterproof container that keeps the embryo from drying out as it develops

30

placenta

a membranous organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy

31

amniote embryos develop in a...

...fluid-filled sac

32

___ and ___ differ among amniotes

anatomy and circulation

33

amniotes can be...

...ectothermic or endothermic

34

pulmonary cicuit

moves oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs, and oxygen-rich blood back to the heart

35

systemic circuit

moves oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body

36

ectotherm

organisms whose body temperatures are determined by their surrounding environment

37

endotherms

organisms that use their own metabolic heat to keep their tissues warm

38

reptiles are a diverse group of...

...amniotes

39

reptiles have been evolving for...

...millions of years

40

there are four modern groups of...

...reptiles

41

reptile

ectotherms that are covered with dry scales or plates on reproduce by laying amniotic eggs covered with a tough outer shell

42

oviparous

reptiles deposit their eggs into an external nest, and the eggs develop completely independent of the adult reptile

43

viviparous

reptiles hold the eggs inside their body through the duration of development and give birth to live offspring

44

birds evolved from...

...theropod dinosaurs

45

a bird's body is specialized for...

...flight

46

birds have spread to many...

...ecological niches

47

airfoil

a curved surface that is curved down on the top (convex) and curved up on the bottom (concave)

48

sternum

same as breastbone
where the chest muscles attach along with arms

49

air sacs

in a bird body
connect to lungs

50

all mammals share several...

...common characteristics

51

modern mammals are divided into...

...three main groups

52

mammal

active, large-brained, endothermic animals with complex social, feeding, and reproductive behaviors

53

mammary gland

specialized glands tha produce milk

54

monotremes

mammals that lay eggs

55

marsupials

mammals that give birth to immature, under-developed live young that grow to maturity inside a marsupium, or pouch

56

eutherian

give birth to live young that have completed fetal development