Flashcards in Unit 9- Chapters 25 and 26 Deck (56):
the phylum chordata contains...
...all vertebrates and some invertebrates
all vertebrates share...
fossil evidence sheds light...
...on the orgins of vertebrates
share 4 features at some stage of their development
2) hollow nerve cord
3) pharyngeal slits
a flexible skeletal support rod embedded in the animal's back
an internal skeleton built of bone or cartilage
fiash are vertebrates with...
...gills and paired fins
jaws evolved from...
only ___ groups of jawed fish still exist
large sheets of thin frilly tissue filled with capillaries that take in dissolved oxygen from the water and release carbon dioxide
the opposite movement of water against the flow of blood in the fish's gills
a series of shallow canals on the sides of the fish made up of cells that are sensitive to small changes in water movement
covers the gills of all bony fish in a chamber covered by a protective plate
ray-fined fish have...
...a fan of bones in their fins
lobe-finned fish have...
...paired rounded fins supported by a single bone
fins that are supported by a fan-shaped array of bones
modified lungs that act as a buoyancy organ
paired pectoral and pelvic fins that are round in shape
amphibians were the first animals with...
amphibians retuen to the water to...
modern amphibians can be divided into...
a vertebrate that has four limbs
animals that can live both on land and in water
aquatic larvae of frogs
amniotes do not need to...
...return to water to reproduce
a vertebrate tha has a thin, tough, membranous sace that encloses the embryo of fetus
a protein that binds to lipids inside the cell, forming a hydrophobic-or water repellent- layer that keeps the water inside the animal from reaching the skin
an almost completely waterproof container that keeps the embryo from drying out as it develops
a membranous organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy
amniote embryos develop in a...
___ and ___ differ among amniotes
anatomy and circulation
amniotes can be...
...ectothermic or endothermic
moves oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs, and oxygen-rich blood back to the heart
moves oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body
organisms whose body temperatures are determined by their surrounding environment
organisms that use their own metabolic heat to keep their tissues warm
reptiles are a diverse group of...
reptiles have been evolving for...
...millions of years
there are four modern groups of...
ectotherms that are covered with dry scales or plates on reproduce by laying amniotic eggs covered with a tough outer shell
reptiles deposit their eggs into an external nest, and the eggs develop completely independent of the adult reptile
reptiles hold the eggs inside their body through the duration of development and give birth to live offspring
birds evolved from...
a bird's body is specialized for...
birds have spread to many...
a curved surface that is curved down on the top (convex) and curved up on the bottom (concave)
same as breastbone
where the chest muscles attach along with arms
in a bird body
connect to lungs
all mammals share several...
modern mammals are divided into...
...three main groups
active, large-brained, endothermic animals with complex social, feeding, and reproductive behaviors
specialized glands tha produce milk
mammals that lay eggs
mammals that give birth to immature, under-developed live young that grow to maturity inside a marsupium, or pouch