Unit 3-Chapters 3, 4, and 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3-Chapters 3, 4, and 5 Deck (116):
1

early sutides led to the...

...developement of the cell theory

2

porkaryotic cells lack a...

...nucles and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells

3

cell theory

3 part theory
1. all organimsms are made of cells
2. all existing cells are produced by other living cells
3. the cell is the most basic unit of life

4

cytoplasm

a jellylike ubstance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks-such as protiens, nucleic acids, minerals, and ions

5

organelles

specialized structures to perform distinct processes within a cell

6

prokaryotic cells

no nucleus
no membrane-bound organelles
DNA in cytoplasm
single-celled organisms

7

eukaryotic cells

have a nucleus
have mebrane-bound organelles
nucleus has encloses DNA
may be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms

8

calls have...

...an internal structure

9

several organelles are involved in...

...making an processing protiens

10

other organelles have...

...various functions

11

plant cells have...

...cell walls and chloroplasts

12

cytoskeleton

a network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the needs of a cell

13

nucles

storehouse for genetic informatino-->DNA

14

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

an interconnected network of thin folded membranes

15

smooth ER

ER without ribosomes in it

16

rough ER

ER with ribosomes in it

17

ribosomes

tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins

18

golgi apparatus

consist of closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins

19

vesicles

general name used to describe small membrane-bound sace that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place within the cell

20

mitochondria

supply energy to the cell
two membranes: inner and outer

21

vauole

fluid-filled sace used for the storage of materials needed by a cell

22

lysosomes

membrane-boiund organelles that contain enzymes

23

centrioles

cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle

24

cell wall

a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell

25

chloroplasts

carry out photosynthesis-->convert solar energy into energy cells can use
only in plant cells

26

cell membrane

same as plasma membrane
forms a boundary between the cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell

27

phospholipid

molecule composed of:
1. a charged posphate groups/head
2. glycerol????
3. two fatty acid chains

28

fluid mosaic model

describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

29

selective permeability

cell membrane is this
allows some, but not all, materials to cross

30

receptor

a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response

31

cell membranes are composed of...

...two phospholipid layers

32

chemical signals are...

...transmitted across the cell membrane

33

diffusion and osmosis are types of...

...passive transport

34

some molecules diffuse through...

...transport proteins

35

passive transport

the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell

36

diffusion

the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

37

concentration gradient

the difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another

38

osmosis

diffusion for water molecules
across a semi-permeable mebrane from high to low concentration

39

isotonic solutions

both solutions have the same concentration of dissolved particles

40

hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the hypertonic solution has a higher concentraion of dissolced particles in it than the other one

41

hypotonic

when comparing two solutions, the hypotonic solution has a lower concentraion of dissolced particles in it than the other one

42

facilitated diffusion

the diffusion across a membrane through transport proteins
still passive transport

43

proteins can transport materials...

...against a concentration gradient

44

endocytosis and exocytosis...

...transport materials across the membrane in vesicles

45

active transport

drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration

46

endocytosis

process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane

47

phagocytosis

a tyoe if endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles

48

exocytosis

the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane

49

photosynthesis

process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy

50

photosynthetic organisms are...

...producers

51

photosynthesis in plants occurs in...

...chloroplasts

52

chlorophyll

a molecule in chlorplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light

53

thylakoids

membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbed pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

54

light-dependent reactions

capture energy from sunlight
water and sunlight necessary

55

light-independent reactions

use energy from light-dependent reactions to make sugars
Carbon dioxide is needed

56

cellular respiration makes...

...ATP by breaking down sugars

57

cellular repiration is like a mirror image of...

...photosynthesis

58

cellular respiration

releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon-based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present

59

aerobic

a process that needs oxygen to take place

60

glycolysis

splits glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules and makes 2 molecules of ATP

61

anaerobic

a process that does not need oxygen to take place

62

krebs cycle

produces molecules that carry energy to the second part of cellular repiration

63

cell cycle has...

...four main stages

64

cells divide...

...at different rates

65

cell size is...

...limited

66

cell cycle

the regular pattern of growthm DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells

67

mitosis-basic

the division of the cell nucleus and its contents

68

cytokinesis-basic

the process that divides the cell's cytoplasm

69

chromosomes condense at the start of...

...mitosis

70

mitosis and cytonkinesis produce...

...two genetically identical daughter cells

71

chromosomes

on long continuous thread of DNAthat consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information

72

histone

a protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps

73

chromatin

loose combination of DNA and proteins

74

chromatid

one half of a duplicated chromosome

75

centromere

where sister chromatids (two identical chromatids) are held together

76

telomeres

repeating nucleotde at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes

77

The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by...

...ATP

78

Organisms break down carbon based molecules to produce...

...ATP

79

a few types of organisms do not need...

...sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy

80

ATP

adenosine triphosphate
a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes

81

ADP

a lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group

82

chemosynthesis

a process by which come organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules

83

Light Dependent Reactions of photosynthesis

first step
light energy captured
water molecules broken down

84

Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis

also called light-independent reactions
uses carbon dioxide and makes glucose

85

fermentation allows...

...glycolysis to continue

86

fermentation and its products are...

...important in several ways

87

fermentation

does not make ATP
allows glycolysis to continue

88

lactic acid

causes muscles to burn during excercise
waste product of fermentation

89

Interphase

G1-normal cell function, growing in size
S-DNA multiplies (2 complete sets)
G2-cback to everyday function, growing
MOST TIME IS SPENT IN INTERPHASE

90

Mitosis-detailed

when the DNA is split and another nucleus is formed
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

91

Prophase

DNA coils up
spindle fibers grow
Nuclear membrane disapeers

92

Metaphase

DNA lines up in center of cell
Each chromatid attaches to a spindle fiber

93

anaphase

DNA is split into 2 exact copies
DNA seperates to opposite sides of the cell

94

telophase

2 nuclear membranes form
cell starts to pinch off

95

cytokinesis-detailed

cell is divided and 2 identical cells are formed

96

internal and external factors regulate...

...cell division

97

cell division is uncontrolled in...

...cancer

98

growth factor

a broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division

99

apoptosis

programmed cell death

100

cancer

common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division

101

benign tumor

a tumor in which the cancer cells typically remain clustered together

102

malignant

a tumor in which some of the cells break away (metastasize) and can form new tumors

103

metastasize

when cells break away from a tumor

104

carcinogens

substances that are known to produce or promote the development of cancer

105

binary fission is similar in function to...

...mitosis

106

some eukaryotes reproduce through...

...mitosis

107

asexual reproduction

the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes

108

binary fission

the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into 2 roughly equal parts

109

multicellular organisms depend on...

...interactions among different cell types

110

specialized cells perform...

...specific functions

111

stem cells can develop into...

...different cell types

112

tissue

groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function

113

organs

groups of tissues that work toether to perform a specific function or related functions

114

organ systems

organs that carry out similar functions

115

cell differentiation

the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions

116

stem cells

a unique type of body cell tha have the ability to:
1) divide and renew themselves for long periods of time
2) remaion undifferentiated in form
3) develop into a variety of specialized cell types