Flashcards in Unit 3-Chapters 3, 4, and 5 Deck (116):
early sutides led to the...
...developement of the cell theory
porkaryotic cells lack a...
...nucles and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells
3 part theory
1. all organimsms are made of cells
2. all existing cells are produced by other living cells
3. the cell is the most basic unit of life
a jellylike ubstance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks-such as protiens, nucleic acids, minerals, and ions
specialized structures to perform distinct processes within a cell
no membrane-bound organelles
DNA in cytoplasm
have a nucleus
have mebrane-bound organelles
nucleus has encloses DNA
may be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms
...an internal structure
several organelles are involved in...
...making an processing protiens
other organelles have...
plant cells have...
...cell walls and chloroplasts
a network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the needs of a cell
storehouse for genetic informatino-->DNA
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an interconnected network of thin folded membranes
ER without ribosomes in it
ER with ribosomes in it
tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
consist of closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
general name used to describe small membrane-bound sace that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place within the cell
supply energy to the cell
two membranes: inner and outer
fluid-filled sace used for the storage of materials needed by a cell
membrane-boiund organelles that contain enzymes
cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle
a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell
carry out photosynthesis-->convert solar energy into energy cells can use
only in plant cells
same as plasma membrane
forms a boundary between the cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
molecule composed of:
1. a charged posphate groups/head
3. two fatty acid chains
fluid mosaic model
describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
cell membrane is this
allows some, but not all, materials to cross
a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
cell membranes are composed of...
...two phospholipid layers
chemical signals are...
...transmitted across the cell membrane
diffusion and osmosis are types of...
some molecules diffuse through...
the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
the difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
diffusion for water molecules
across a semi-permeable mebrane from high to low concentration
both solutions have the same concentration of dissolved particles
when comparing two solutions, the hypertonic solution has a higher concentraion of dissolced particles in it than the other one
when comparing two solutions, the hypotonic solution has a lower concentraion of dissolced particles in it than the other one
the diffusion across a membrane through transport proteins
still passive transport
proteins can transport materials...
...against a concentration gradient
endocytosis and exocytosis...
...transport materials across the membrane in vesicles
drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
a tyoe if endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles
the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy
photosynthetic organisms are...
photosynthesis in plants occurs in...
a molecule in chlorplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light
membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbed pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
capture energy from sunlight
water and sunlight necessary
use energy from light-dependent reactions to make sugars
Carbon dioxide is needed
cellular respiration makes...
...ATP by breaking down sugars
cellular repiration is like a mirror image of...
releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon-based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present
a process that needs oxygen to take place
splits glucose into 2 3-carbon molecules and makes 2 molecules of ATP
a process that does not need oxygen to take place
produces molecules that carry energy to the second part of cellular repiration
cell cycle has...
...four main stages
...at different rates
cell size is...
the regular pattern of growthm DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
the process that divides the cell's cytoplasm
chromosomes condense at the start of...
mitosis and cytonkinesis produce...
...two genetically identical daughter cells
on long continuous thread of DNAthat consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
a protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps
loose combination of DNA and proteins
one half of a duplicated chromosome
where sister chromatids (two identical chromatids) are held together
repeating nucleotde at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by...
Organisms break down carbon based molecules to produce...
a few types of organisms do not need...
...sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy
a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes
a lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group
a process by which come organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules
Light Dependent Reactions of photosynthesis
light energy captured
water molecules broken down
Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis
also called light-independent reactions
uses carbon dioxide and makes glucose
...glycolysis to continue
fermentation and its products are...
...important in several ways
does not make ATP
allows glycolysis to continue
causes muscles to burn during excercise
waste product of fermentation
G1-normal cell function, growing in size
S-DNA multiplies (2 complete sets)
G2-cback to everyday function, growing
MOST TIME IS SPENT IN INTERPHASE
when the DNA is split and another nucleus is formed
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
DNA coils up
spindle fibers grow
Nuclear membrane disapeers
DNA lines up in center of cell
Each chromatid attaches to a spindle fiber
DNA is split into 2 exact copies
DNA seperates to opposite sides of the cell
2 nuclear membranes form
cell starts to pinch off
cell is divided and 2 identical cells are formed
internal and external factors regulate...
cell division is uncontrolled in...
a broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
programmed cell death
common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
a tumor in which the cancer cells typically remain clustered together
a tumor in which some of the cells break away (metastasize) and can form new tumors
when cells break away from a tumor
substances that are known to produce or promote the development of cancer
binary fission is similar in function to...
some eukaryotes reproduce through...
the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes
the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into 2 roughly equal parts
multicellular organisms depend on...
...interactions among different cell types
specialized cells perform...
stem cells can develop into...
...different cell types
groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function
groups of tissues that work toether to perform a specific function or related functions
organs that carry out similar functions
the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions