Unit 4-Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 Flashcards Preview

Biology Honors > Unit 4-Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4-Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 Deck (112):
1

You have ___ and ___

Body cells and gametes

2

Your cells have ___ and ___ chromosomes

autosomes and sex

3

Body cells are ___; gametes are ___

diploid and haploid

4

somatic cells

same as body cells
make up most body tissues and organs

5

gamete cells

same as sex cells
eggs/ova in females
sperm/spermatozoa in males

6

homologous chromosomes

2 chromosomes-one from ma and one from pa-that have the same length and general appearance

7

autosomes

chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism

8

3 names for body cells

body
somatic
diploid

9

3 names for sex cells

sex
gamete
haploid

10

sexual reproduction

involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents

11

fertilization

the actual fusion of an egg and sperm cell

12

diploid

when a cell has two copies of each chromosome: one from ma and one from pa

13

haploid

a cell that has only one copy of each chromosome

14

meiosis

a form of nuclear division that divide a diploid cell into haploid cells

15

cells go through... during meiosis

two rounds of division

16

haploid cells develop into...

...mature gametes

17

___ laid the groundwork for genetics

Mendel

18

Mendel's data revealed...

...patterns of inheritance

19

trait

distinguishing characteristics that are inherited

20

genetics

the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation

21

purebred

organisms that are genetically uniform

22

cross

mating of two organisms

23

law of segregation

1. organisms inherit 2 copies of each gene (one from each parent)
2. organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes

24

the same gene can have...

...many versions

25

genes influence the...

...developement of traits

26

gene

a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make certain protein

27

allele

any alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus

28

homozygous

2 of the same alleles at a specific locus

29

heterozygous

2 different alleles ata specific locus

30

genome

all of an organism's genetic material

31

genotype

refers to the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes

32

phenotype

the physical characteristics or traits of an individual organism

33

dominant

the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present

34

recessive

the allele that is only expressed when two copies are present

35

punnet squares illustrate...

...genetic crosses

36

a monohybrid cross involves...

...one trait

37

a dihybrid cross involves...

...two traits

38

heredity patterns can be calculated with...

...probability

39

punnett square

a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross

40

monohybrid crosses

crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait

41

testcross

a ccross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype

42

dihybrid crosses

crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits

43

law of independent assortment

allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation/meiosis

44

2 copies of each autosomal gene...

...affect phenotype

45

males and females can differ in...

...sex-linked traits

46

carrier

does not show disease symptoms, but can pass on the disease-causing allele to offspring

47

sex-linked genes

genes that are located on the sex chromosomes

48

X chromosome inactivation

when one of the two X chromosomes is randomly tunred off

49

phenotype can depend on...

...interactions of alleles

50

many genes interact to produce...

...one trait

51

the environment interacts with...

...genotype

52

incomplete dominance

when a heterozygous phenotype is somewhere between the two homozygous phenotypes

53

codominance

when both traits are fully and seperately expressed

54

polygenic traits

traits produced by two or more genes

55

human genetics follow...

...the patterns seen in other organisms

56

females can carry...

...sex-linked genetic disorders

57

a pedigree is a...

...chart for tracing genes in a family

58

several methods help map...

...human chromosomes

59

pedigree

a chart that can help trace the phenotypes and genotypes in a family to determine whether people can carry recessive alleles

60

karyotype

a picture of all the chromosomes in the cell

61

DNA is composed of...

...four types of nucleotides

62

Watson and Crick developed...

...an accurate model of DNA's 3-D shape

63

nucleotides always...

...pair in the same way

64

nucleotide

the small units/monomers that make up DNA

65

double helix

the shape of DNA
2 strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder

66

base pairing rules

bases of the 2 DNA strands always pair up in the same way
T with A
C with G

67

replication copies...

...genetic information

68

proteins carry out...

...the process of replication

69

replication is...

...fast and accurate

70

replication

process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle

71

DNA polymerases

a group of enzymes that band the new nucleotides together

72

RNA carries...

...Dna's instructions

73

Transcription makes...

...three types of RNA

74

the transcription process is similar to...

...replication

75

central dogma

a theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins

76

RNA

ribonucleic acid
a chain of nucleotides

77

transcription

the process of copying as sequense of DNA to producs a complementary strand of RNA

78

RNA polymerase

an enzyme that bonds nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule

79

messenger RNA (mRNA)

the message that is translated to make a protein

80

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

forms part of ribosomes

81

transfer RNA (tRNA)

brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein

82

translation

the process that converts or translates and mRNA message into a polypeptide

83

codon

a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid

84

stop codons

3 of them: UGA: UAA: UAG
signal the end of the amino acid chain

85

start codon

AUG: methionini
signals the start of translation

86

anticodon

a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon

87

scientists use several techniques to...

...manipulate DNA

88

restriction enzymes cut...

...DNA

89

restriction maps shoe the...

...lengths of DNA fragments

90

restriction enzyme

enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences

91

gel electrophoresis

an electircal current is used to separate a mixture of DNA fragements from each other

92

restriction maps

show the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites in a strand of DNA

93

a DNA fingerprint is a type of...

...restriction map

94

DNA fingerprinting is used for...

...identification

95

DNA fingerprint

a representation of parts of an indviduals DNA that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level

96

entire organisms can be...

...cloned

97

new genes cab be added to..

...an organisms DNA

98

Genetic engineering produces...

...organisms with new traits

99

clone

a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism

100

genetic engineering

changing of an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits

101

recombinant DNA

DNA that contains genes from more than one organism

102

plasmids

closed loops of DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome and that replicate on their own within the cell

103

transgenic

an organism that has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome

104

gene knockout

genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being espressed

105

genomics involves...

...the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes

106

technology allows the study and comparison of both...

...genes and proteins

107

genomice

the study of genomes

108

gene sequencing

determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or genomes

109

Human Genome Project

two main goals:
1. to map and sequence all of the DNA base pairs of the human chromosomes
2. to identify all of the genes within the sequence

110

bioinformatics

the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data

111

DNA microarrays

tools that allow scientists to study many genes and their expression at once

112

proteomics

the study and comparison of all the proteins that result from an organisms genome