Flashcards in Unit 4-Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 Deck (112):
You have ___ and ___
Body cells and gametes
Your cells have ___ and ___ chromosomes
autosomes and sex
Body cells are ___; gametes are ___
diploid and haploid
same as body cells
make up most body tissues and organs
same as sex cells
eggs/ova in females
sperm/spermatozoa in males
2 chromosomes-one from ma and one from pa-that have the same length and general appearance
chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
3 names for body cells
3 names for sex cells
involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
the actual fusion of an egg and sperm cell
when a cell has two copies of each chromosome: one from ma and one from pa
a cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
a form of nuclear division that divide a diploid cell into haploid cells
cells go through... during meiosis
two rounds of division
haploid cells develop into...
___ laid the groundwork for genetics
Mendel's data revealed...
...patterns of inheritance
distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation
organisms that are genetically uniform
mating of two organisms
law of segregation
1. organisms inherit 2 copies of each gene (one from each parent)
2. organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes
the same gene can have...
genes influence the...
...developement of traits
a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make certain protein
any alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
2 of the same alleles at a specific locus
2 different alleles ata specific locus
all of an organism's genetic material
refers to the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
the physical characteristics or traits of an individual organism
the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present
the allele that is only expressed when two copies are present
punnet squares illustrate...
a monohybrid cross involves...
a dihybrid cross involves...
heredity patterns can be calculated with...
a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
a ccross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
law of independent assortment
allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation/meiosis
2 copies of each autosomal gene...
males and females can differ in...
does not show disease symptoms, but can pass on the disease-causing allele to offspring
genes that are located on the sex chromosomes
X chromosome inactivation
when one of the two X chromosomes is randomly tunred off
phenotype can depend on...
...interactions of alleles
many genes interact to produce...
the environment interacts with...
when a heterozygous phenotype is somewhere between the two homozygous phenotypes
when both traits are fully and seperately expressed
traits produced by two or more genes
human genetics follow...
...the patterns seen in other organisms
females can carry...
...sex-linked genetic disorders
a pedigree is a...
...chart for tracing genes in a family
several methods help map...
a chart that can help trace the phenotypes and genotypes in a family to determine whether people can carry recessive alleles
a picture of all the chromosomes in the cell
DNA is composed of...
...four types of nucleotides
Watson and Crick developed...
...an accurate model of DNA's 3-D shape
...pair in the same way
the small units/monomers that make up DNA
the shape of DNA
2 strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
base pairing rules
bases of the 2 DNA strands always pair up in the same way
T with A
C with G
proteins carry out...
...the process of replication
...fast and accurate
process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
a group of enzymes that band the new nucleotides together
...three types of RNA
the transcription process is similar to...
a theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
a chain of nucleotides
the process of copying as sequense of DNA to producs a complementary strand of RNA
an enzyme that bonds nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
messenger RNA (mRNA)
the message that is translated to make a protein
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
forms part of ribosomes
transfer RNA (tRNA)
brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
the process that converts or translates and mRNA message into a polypeptide
a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid
3 of them: UGA: UAA: UAG
signal the end of the amino acid chain
signals the start of translation
a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
scientists use several techniques to...
restriction enzymes cut...
restriction maps shoe the...
...lengths of DNA fragments
enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
an electircal current is used to separate a mixture of DNA fragements from each other
show the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites in a strand of DNA
a DNA fingerprint is a type of...
DNA fingerprinting is used for...
a representation of parts of an indviduals DNA that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
entire organisms can be...
new genes cab be added to..
...an organisms DNA
Genetic engineering produces...
...organisms with new traits
a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism
changing of an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits
DNA that contains genes from more than one organism
closed loops of DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome and that replicate on their own within the cell
an organism that has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome
genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being espressed
...the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes
technology allows the study and comparison of both...
...genes and proteins
the study of genomes
determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or genomes
Human Genome Project
two main goals:
1. to map and sequence all of the DNA base pairs of the human chromosomes
2. to identify all of the genes within the sequence
the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data
tools that allow scientists to study many genes and their expression at once