Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (211):
the end point of the bone
the shaft of the bone
Common types of fractures
simple (closed) & compound
simple (closed) fracture
where the bone is broken but there is not an open wound through the skin
where the bone is broken and there is an open wound through the skin
Number of bones in the skeleton
relates to the bones of the head and trunk (skull, spinal column, ribs and sternum) and includes 80 bones.
relates to bones of the upper extremities, shoulder, lower extremities and pelvis, and includes the other 126 bones.
In addition to providing structure, bones:
Act as a lever (The bones of the upper and lower limbs pull and push, with the help of muscles)
Provide protection and support for inner organs, e.g. skull protects the brain
Produce blood cells in the bone marrow
Play an important role in regulating the amount of essential nutrients
Store 97% of the body's calcium
what is bone?
Bone is a form of connective tissue and is one of the hardest tissues in the human body. The only part of the body that is harder is the enamel of the teeth.
4 tissues that make up a bone
Tough fibrous tissue that covers the outside of the bone.
Hard dense strong bone that forms the outermost layer of the bones.
Lighter, less dense tissue that is found in the inner portion of the long bones. Red bone marrow is located in the spongy layer.
Located in the shaft of long bones and contains the yellow bone marrow.
Jagged line where bones join and form a joint that does not move, e.g. skull
Two bones are joined by cartilage and they function together as one bone.
Joints that are movable; e.g. knee, elbow, hips
Band of tissue that connects one bone to another
Fibrous sac that acts as a cushion for easy movement
move the internal organs, such as the blood vessels and ducts from the glands. They have a relatively slow rate of contracting and are involuntary.
is similar to smooth muscle and makes up the wall of the heart. It is involuntary in function.
attach to bones of the skeleton and make movement possible. They are voluntary.
The study of the activity of muscle
how do muscles work?
The muscles of the body are arranged in pairs. One muscle of the pair causes movement in one direction and the other produces movement in the opposite direction.
range of motion
the movements that are possible by a muscle.
Movement away from the midline of the body
Movement toward the midline of the body
Decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a joint.
e.g. bending the arm at the elbow
Increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening out a limb.
e.g. straightening the arm out at the elbow
Movement in a circular motion.
Rotating a body part so it is facing down.
Rotating a body part so it is facing up.
Naming of a muscle is generally dependent on one of which 6 characteristics?
- How they act (flexor carpi radialis muscle)
- Where they are located (rectus abdominus)
The direction their fibers run (external abdominal oblique)
The number of times they divide (quadriceps femoris)
Their size (gluteus maximus)
Their shape (deltoid muscle)
4 health problems that affect the way muscles work in our body:
Degeneration of the muscle e.g. Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease
Paralysis of muscle e.g. paraplegic
Problems with muscle tone, e.g. weakness, loss of tone, increased tone
Problems with muscle activity, e.g. impaired movements like tics, spasms; slow movements, rapid movements.
fusion of parts
fascia (band of tissue around muscle)
femur, thigh bone
humerus, upper arm
ischium (posterior part of hip)
mandible, lower jaw
maxilla, upper jaw
marrow, inner portion of an organ
metacarpals (bones of the hand)
metatarsals (bones of the foot)
bone marrow, spinal cord
occiput (back part of the head)
parietal bone of the head
phalanges, bone of the finger or toes
radius, bone of the lower arm
synovium, synovial fluid that lubricates
synovium, synovial fluid that lubricates
temporal bone of the head
tibia, bone of the lower leg
ulnar, bone of the lower arm
no strength, weakness
surgical puncture to remove fluid
surgical fracture or refracture
surgical fusion or binding
set free, breakdown, destruction
porous open spaces
nourishment, development, growth
extension, away from
pertaining to a joint (articul/ + -ar)
painful joint (arthr/ + -algia)
inflammation of a joint (arthr/ + -itis)
surgical repair of a joint (arthr/o + -plasty
examination of a joint using a scope (arthr/o + -scopy)
pertaining to the wrist (carp/ + -al)
pertaining to the neck (cervic/ + -al)
cartilage cells (chondr/o + -cyte)
tumor of the cartilage (chondr/ + -oma
malignant tumor of the cartilage (chondr/o + -sarcoma)
pertaining to the collarbone (clavicul/ + -ar)
pertaining to the ribs (cost/ + -al)
pertaining to the ribs and vertebrae (cost/o + -vertebr + -al)
surgical incision into the skull (crani/o + -tomy)
pertaining to the skull and face (crani/o + faci/ + -al)
pertaining to fascia (fasci/ + -al)
inflammation of the fascia (fasci/ + -itis)
pertaining to the thighbone (femor/ + -al)
pertaining to the fibula (fibul/ + -ar)
pertaining to fibrous tissue (fibr/ + -ous)
pertaining to the upper arm (humer/ + -al)
pertaining to the hip (ili/ + -ac)
pertaining to the hip and sacrum (ili/ + sacr/ + -al)
pertaining to the ischium (ischi/ + -al)
pertaining to the rectum (ischi/o + rect/ + -al)
study of movement (kinesi/o + -logy)
pertaining to the lower back and sacrum (lumb/o + -sacr + -al)
pertaining to the lower jaw (mandibul/ + -ar)
pertaining to the upper jaw (maxill/ + -ary)
pertaining to the bones of the hand (metacarp/ + -al)
pertaining to the bones of the foot (metatars/ + -al)
pertaining to the muscle (muscul/ + -ar)
pain in a muscle (my/ + -algia)
muscle disease (my/o + -pathy)
tumor of the bone marrow or spinal cord (myel/ + -oma)
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow (oste/o + myel/ + -itis)
immature bone cell (oste/o + -blast)
inflammation of bone and cartilage (oste/o + chondr/ + -itis)
mature bone cell (oste/o + -cyte)
tumor of the bone (oste/ + -oma)
malignant tumor of the bone (oste/o + -sarcoma)
pertaining to the kneecap (patell/ + -ar)
pertaining to below the kneecap (patell/ + -ar + infra-)
pertaining to above the kneecap (patell/ + -ar + supra-)
pertaining to the pelvis (pelv/ + -ic)
instrument used to measure the size of the pelvis (pelv/i + -meter)
pertaining to the bones of the fingers or toes (phalang/ + -al + inter-)
pertaining to the sacrum (sacr/ + -al)
pertaining to below the scapula (scapul/ + -ar + sub-)
inflammation of the vertebra (spondyl/ + -itis)
disease of the vertebra (spondyl/o + -pathy)
pertaining to the breastbone (stern/ + -al)
pertaining to the ribs and breastbone (cost/o + stern/ + -al)
pertaining to the synovial membrane or the fluid that lubricates the joint (synov/i + -al)
inflammation of a tendon (tendin/ + -itis)
surgical fusion of a tendon (ten/o -desis)
pertaining to the chest (thorac/ + -ic)
pertaining to the tibia and fibula (tibi/o + fubul/ + -ar)
pertaining to no tone (ton/ + -ic + a-)
pertaining to excessive tone (ton/ + -ic + hyper-)
pertaining to the bone of the lower arm (uln/ + -ar)
pertaining to the vertebrae (vertebr/o + femor/ + -al)
surgical puncture into a joint to remove fluid (arthr/o + -centisis)
surgical fracture of a bone (oste/o + -clasis)
cell which breaks down (oste/o + -clast)
surgical fusion of a joint (arthr/o + -desis)
softening of the bone (oste/o + -malacia)
softening of the cartilage (chondr/o + -malacia)
abnormal curvature of the spine (kyph/ + -osis)
abnormal condition where the bone becomes too porous (oste/o + -porosis)
surgical speciality dealing with correction of deformities of the skeletal system (ortho- + ped/ + -ic)
an instrument used to examine the interior joint
bone marrow transplant
the surgical procedure of transferring bone marrow from a donor to a patient
a small space between muscles, tendons, and bones that is lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid, Synovia
a mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development blood coagulation
carpal tunnel syndrome
a condition caused by compression of the medial nerve by the carpal ligament; symptoms; soreness, tenderness, weakness, pain, tingling and numbness of wrist
the displacement of a bone from a joint
the big or great toe
crescent shaped interarticular fibrocartilage found in certain joints, especially the knee joint
twisting of a joint that causes pain
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis