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Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (211):
1

Epiphysis

the end point of the bone

2

Diaphysis

the shaft of the bone

3

Common types of fractures

simple (closed) & compound

4

simple (closed) fracture

where the bone is broken but there is not an open wound through the skin

5

compound fracture

where the bone is broken and there is an open wound through the skin

6

Number of bones in the skeleton

206

7

axial skeleton

relates to the bones of the head and trunk (skull, spinal column, ribs and sternum) and includes 80 bones.

8

appendicular skeleton

relates to bones of the upper extremities, shoulder, lower extremities and pelvis, and includes the other 126 bones.

9

In addition to providing structure, bones:

Act as a lever (The bones of the upper and lower limbs pull and push, with the help of muscles)
Provide protection and support for inner organs, e.g. skull protects the brain
Produce blood cells in the bone marrow
Play an important role in regulating the amount of essential nutrients
Store 97% of the body's calcium

10

what is bone?

Bone is a form of connective tissue and is one of the hardest tissues in the human body. The only part of the body that is harder is the enamel of the teeth.

11

4 tissues that make up a bone

Periosteum
Compact Bone
Spongy Bone
Medullary Cavity

12

periosteum

Tough fibrous tissue that covers the outside of the bone.

13

compact bone

Hard dense strong bone that forms the outermost layer of the bones.

14

spongy bone

Lighter, less dense tissue that is found in the inner portion of the long bones. Red bone marrow is located in the spongy layer.

15

medullary cavity

Located in the shaft of long bones and contains the yellow bone marrow.

16

suture

Jagged line where bones join and form a joint that does not move, e.g. skull

17

cartilaginous joint

Two bones are joined by cartilage and they function together as one bone.

18

synovial

Joints that are movable; e.g. knee, elbow, hips

19

ligament

Band of tissue that connects one bone to another

20

bursa

Fibrous sac that acts as a cushion for easy movement

21

smooth muscles

move the internal organs, such as the blood vessels and ducts from the glands. They have a relatively slow rate of contracting and are involuntary.

22

cardiac muscle

is similar to smooth muscle and makes up the wall of the heart. It is involuntary in function.

23

skeletal muscle

attach to bones of the skeleton and make movement possible. They are voluntary.

24

kinesiology

(kih-nee-see-ol-oh-jee)
The study of the activity of muscle

25

how do muscles work?

The muscles of the body are arranged in pairs. One muscle of the pair causes movement in one direction and the other produces movement in the opposite direction.

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range of motion

the movements that are possible by a muscle.

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abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body

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adduction

Movement toward the midline of the body

29

flexion

Decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a joint.
e.g. bending the arm at the elbow

30

extension

Increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening out a limb.
e.g. straightening the arm out at the elbow

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rotation

Movement in a circular motion.

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pronation

Rotating a body part so it is facing down.

33

supination

Rotating a body part so it is facing up.

34

Naming of a muscle is generally dependent on one of which 6 characteristics?

- How they act (flexor carpi radialis muscle)
- Where they are located (rectus abdominus)
The direction their fibers run (external abdominal oblique)
The number of times they divide (quadriceps femoris)
Their size (gluteus maximus)
Their shape (deltoid muscle)

35

4 health problems that affect the way muscles work in our body:

Degeneration of the muscle e.g. Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease
Paralysis of muscle e.g. paraplegic
Problems with muscle tone, e.g. weakness, loss of tone, increased tone
Problems with muscle activity, e.g. impaired movements like tics, spasms; slow movements, rapid movements.

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ankyl/o

fusion of parts

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articul/o

joint

38

arthr/o

joint

39

burs/o

bursa

40

carp/o

wrist bone

41

cervic/o

neck

42

chondr/o

cartilage

43

clavicul/o

clavicle, collarbone

44

coccyg/o

coccyx, tailbone

45

cost/o

rib

46

crani/o

skull

47

duct/o

draw away

48

electr/o

electric, electricity

49

fasci/o

fascia (band of tissue around muscle)

50

femor/o

femur, thigh bone

51

fibr/o

fibers

52

fibul/o

fibula

53

flex/o

flexion, bend

54

humer/o

humerus, upper arm

55

ili/o

hip

56

ischi/o

ischium (posterior part of hip)

57

kinesi/o

movement

58

lumb/o

lower back

59

mandibul/o

mandible, lower jaw

60

maxill/o

maxilla, upper jaw

61

medull/o

marrow, inner portion of an organ

62

metacarp/o

metacarpals (bones of the hand)

63

metatars/o

metatarsals (bones of the foot)

64

muscul/o

muscle

65

my/o

muscle

66

myos/o

muscle

67

myel/o

bone marrow, spinal cord

68

occipit/o

occiput (back part of the head)

69

osse/o

bone

70

oste/o

bone

71

oss/e

bone

72

oss/i

bone

73

pariet/o

parietal bone of the head

74

patell/a

patella, kneecap

75

patell/o

patella, kneecap

76

pelv/i

pelvis

77

pelv/o

pelvis

78

phalang/o

phalanges, bone of the finger or toes

79

radi/o

radius, bone of the lower arm

80

radicul/o

nerve root

81

sacr/o

sacrum

82

scapul/o

scapula

83

spondyl/o

vertebra

84

vertebr/o

vertebra

85

stern/o

sternum, breastbone

86

synov/i

synovium, synovial fluid that lubricates

87

synov/o

synovium, synovial fluid that lubricates

88

tempor/o

temporal bone of the head

89

tendin/o

tendon

90

ten/o

tendon

91

tend/o

tendon

92

tens/o

stretch out

93

thorac/o

chest

94

tibi/o

tibia, bone of the lower leg

95

ton/o

tone

96

uln/o

ulnar, bone of the lower arm

97

-asthenia

no strength, weakness

98

-centesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid

99

-clasis

surgical fracture or refracture

100

-clast

break, broken

101

-clonus

turmoil

102

-desis

surgical fusion or binding

103

-kinesis

movement

104

-lysis

set free, breakdown, destruction

105

-malacia

softening

106

-osis

abnormal condition

107

-paresis

partial paralysis

108

-plegia

paralysis

109

-porosis

porous open spaces

110

-thermy

heat

111

-trophy

nourishment, development, growth

112

ab-

away from

113

ad-

toward

114

bi-

two

115

brady-

slow

116

ex-

extension, away from

117

hemi-

half

118

ortho-

straight

119

quadr-

four

120

tri-

three

121

articular

pertaining to a joint (articul/ + -ar)

122

arthralgia

painful joint (arthr/ + -algia)

123

arthritis

inflammation of a joint (arthr/ + -itis)

124

arthroplasty

surgical repair of a joint (arthr/o + -plasty

125

arthroscopy

examination of a joint using a scope (arthr/o + -scopy)

126

carpal

pertaining to the wrist (carp/ + -al)

127

cervical

pertaining to the neck (cervic/ + -al)

128

chondrocyte

cartilage cells (chondr/o + -cyte)

129

chondroma

tumor of the cartilage (chondr/ + -oma

130

chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor of the cartilage (chondr/o + -sarcoma)

131

clavicular

pertaining to the collarbone (clavicul/ + -ar)

132

costal

pertaining to the ribs (cost/ + -al)

133

costovertebral

pertaining to the ribs and vertebrae (cost/o + -vertebr + -al)

134

craniotomy

surgical incision into the skull (crani/o + -tomy)

135

craniofacial

pertaining to the skull and face (crani/o + faci/ + -al)

136

fascial

pertaining to fascia (fasci/ + -al)

137

fascitis

inflammation of the fascia (fasci/ + -itis)

138

femoral

pertaining to the thighbone (femor/ + -al)

139

fibular

pertaining to the fibula (fibul/ + -ar)

140

fibrous

pertaining to fibrous tissue (fibr/ + -ous)

141

humeral

pertaining to the upper arm (humer/ + -al)

142

iliac

pertaining to the hip (ili/ + -ac)

143

iliosacral

pertaining to the hip and sacrum (ili/ + sacr/ + -al)

144

ischial

pertaining to the ischium (ischi/ + -al)

145

ischiorectal

pertaining to the rectum (ischi/o + rect/ + -al)

146

kinesiology

study of movement (kinesi/o + -logy)

147

lumbosacral

pertaining to the lower back and sacrum (lumb/o + -sacr + -al)

148

mandibular

pertaining to the lower jaw (mandibul/ + -ar)

149

maxillary

pertaining to the upper jaw (maxill/ + -ary)

150

metacarpal

pertaining to the bones of the hand (metacarp/ + -al)

151

metatarsal

pertaining to the bones of the foot (metatars/ + -al)

152

muscular

pertaining to the muscle (muscul/ + -ar)

153

myalgia

pain in a muscle (my/ + -algia)

154

myopathy

muscle disease (my/o + -pathy)

155

myeloma

tumor of the bone marrow or spinal cord (myel/ + -oma)

156

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow (oste/o + myel/ + -itis)

157

osteoblast

immature bone cell (oste/o + -blast)

158

osteochondritis

inflammation of bone and cartilage (oste/o + chondr/ + -itis)

159

osteocyte

mature bone cell (oste/o + -cyte)

160

osteoma

tumor of the bone (oste/ + -oma)

161

osteosarcoma

malignant tumor of the bone (oste/o + -sarcoma)

162

patellar

pertaining to the kneecap (patell/ + -ar)

163

infrapatellar

pertaining to below the kneecap (patell/ + -ar + infra-)

164

suprapatellar

pertaining to above the kneecap (patell/ + -ar + supra-)

165

pelvic

pertaining to the pelvis (pelv/ + -ic)

166

pelvimeter

instrument used to measure the size of the pelvis (pelv/i + -meter)

167

interphalangeal

pertaining to the bones of the fingers or toes (phalang/ + -al + inter-)

168

sacral

pertaining to the sacrum (sacr/ + -al)

169

subscapular

pertaining to below the scapula (scapul/ + -ar + sub-)

170

spondylitis

inflammation of the vertebra (spondyl/ + -itis)

171

spondylopathy

disease of the vertebra (spondyl/o + -pathy)

172

sternal

pertaining to the breastbone (stern/ + -al)

173

costosternal

pertaining to the ribs and breastbone (cost/o + stern/ + -al)

174

synovial

pertaining to the synovial membrane or the fluid that lubricates the joint (synov/i + -al)

175

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon (tendin/ + -itis)

176

tendonesis

surgical fusion of a tendon (ten/o -desis)

177

thoracic

pertaining to the chest (thorac/ + -ic)

178

tibiofibular

pertaining to the tibia and fibula (tibi/o + fubul/ + -ar)

179

atonic

pertaining to no tone (ton/ + -ic + a-)

180

hypertonic

pertaining to excessive tone (ton/ + -ic + hyper-)

181

ulnar

pertaining to the bone of the lower arm (uln/ + -ar)

182

vertebrofemoral

pertaining to the vertebrae (vertebr/o + femor/ + -al)

183

arthrocentesis

surgical puncture into a joint to remove fluid (arthr/o + -centisis)

184

osteoclasis

surgical fracture of a bone (oste/o + -clasis)

185

osteoclast

cell which breaks down (oste/o + -clast)

186

arthrodesis

surgical fusion of a joint (arthr/o + -desis)

187

osteomalacia

softening of the bone (oste/o + -malacia)

188

chondromalacia

softening of the cartilage (chondr/o + -malacia)

189

kyphosis

abnormal curvature of the spine (kyph/ + -osis)

190

kyph/o

humpback

191

osteoporosis

abnormal condition where the bone becomes too porous (oste/o + -porosis)

192

Orthopedics

surgical speciality dealing with correction of deformities of the skeletal system (ortho- + ped/ + -ic)

193

arthroscope

an instrument used to examine the interior joint

194

bone marrow transplant

the surgical procedure of transferring bone marrow from a donor to a patient

195

bursa

a small space between muscles, tendons, and bones that is lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid, Synovia

196

calcium

a mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development blood coagulation

197

carpal tunnel syndrome

a condition caused by compression of the medial nerve by the carpal ligament; symptoms; soreness, tenderness, weakness, pain, tingling and numbness of wrist

198

dislocation

the displacement of a bone from a joint

199

genu valgum

knock-knee

200

genu varum

bowleg

201

hallux

the big or great toe

202

meniscus

crescent shaped interarticular fibrocartilage found in certain joints, especially the knee joint

203

sequestrum

dead bone

204

sprain

twisting of a joint that causes pain

205

AP (abbr.)

anteroposterior

206

Fx (abbr.)

fracture

207

JRA (abbr.)

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

208

OA (abbr.)

osteoarthritis

209

Ortho (abbr.)

orthopedics, orthopaedics

210

RA (abbr.)

rheumatoid arthritis

211

Tx (abbr.)

traction