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Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (137):
1

Three types of blood vessels

Arteries
Veins
Capillaries

2

Arteries

carry blood away from the heart

3

Veins

Carry blood toward the heart

4

Capillaries

tiny vessels that join the arteries to the veins, and they carry blood to the body organs

5

pericardium

fluid filled sac which contains the heart

6

Three layers of the walls of the heart

epicardium
myocardium
endocardium

7

Right Atrium

receives blood from the body

8

Left Atrium

receives blood from the lungs

9

Right Ventricle

receives blood from right atrium, sends it to lungs for CO2/O2 exchange

10

Left Ventricle

receives blood from left atrium, pumps blood out to the body

11

Septum

tissue that separates the left side of the heart from the right

12

4 Valves in the heart

Tricuspid
Pulmonary
Mitral
Aortic

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Tricuspid Valve

separates the right atrium from the right ventricle

14

Pulmonary Valve

between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

15

Mitral Valve

separates the left atrium from the left ventricle

16

Aortic Valve

between the left ventricle and the aorta

17

5 main veins/arteries that enter & leave the heart

superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
pulmonary artery
pulmonary veins
aorta

18

superior vena cava

Large vein that carries blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium.

19

Inferior vena cava

Large vein that carries blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.

20

pulmonary artery

Carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

21

pulmonary veins

Carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

22

aorta

Large artery that carries blood from the left ventricle to all the body parts

23

Coronary arteries

A series of arteries that encircle the heart, carrying blood to the heart muscle

24

Average heartbeat per minute

70-80 contractions per minute

25

Direction of blood flow through the heart

Right ->
lungs ->
Left->

26

Conduction system

ongoing electrical system that causes the heart to beat

27

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

start electrical impulse, sets rhythm of heatbeat - usually 60-95 beats per minute

28

Atrioventricular node (AV node)

in the wall of the right atrium, causes both atria to contract simultaneously

29

AV bundle

impulse moves from the AV node to the AV bundle

30

Purkinje fibres

receive impulse from AV bundle, and stimulate both ventricles to contract at the same time

31

electrocardiogram

monitors electrical activity of the heart, producing a graphic picture

32

ECG, EKG (abbr.)

electrocardiogram

33

Ways to asses functioning of the heart

-taking blood pressure
-listening to the sounds of the heart
-counting heart beats

34

systolic pressure

top number in blood pressure measurement. Indicates the amount of pressure on the arteries when the ventricles are contracting

35

diastolic pressure

bottom number in blood pressure measurement. Indicates the amount of pressure on the walls as the ventricles are relaxed.

36

hypertension

high blood pressure

37

hypotension

low blood pressure

38

sphygmomanometer

machine used to take blood pressure
(sfig-moh-man-om-eh-ter)

39

makeup of "whole blood"

55% liquid (plasma) & 45% solid (cells)

40

3 main types of blood cells

erythrocytes (red)
leukocytes (white)
thrombocytes (platelets)

41

hemocytoblasts

immature blood cells

42

hematopoiesis

maturation process where hemocytoblasts become red cells, white cells, or platelets

43

hemoglobin

protein that allows red cells to absorb and transport oxygen

44

5 types of white blood cells

Esinophils
Basophils
Neutrophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes

45

how platelets start blood clotting

release prothrombin & fibrinogen to create a plug/mesh network to stop bleeding

46

angi/o

vessel

47

aort/o

aorta

48

arteri/o

artery

49

ather/o

fatty debris, fatty plaque

50

atri/o

atrium

51

coron/o

crown (coronary arteries)

52

ech/o

sound

53

erythr/o

red

54

fibrin/o

fibrin

55

hem/o

blood

56

isch/o

hold back

57

leuk/o

white

58

lip/o

fat

59

macr/o

large

60

micr/o

small

61

my/o

muscle

62

phag/o

eating, swallowing

63

phleb/o

vein

64

rhythm/o

rhythm

65

ser/o

serum

66

tensi/o

tension

67

thromb/o

clot

68

valvul/o

valve

69

valv/o

valve

70

ventricul/o

ventricle

71

venul/o

venule, small vein

72

brady-

slow

73

endo-

within

74

epi-

upper

75

per-

through

76

pro-

before

77

tachy-

fast

78

-blast

immature

79

-constriction

contraction, make smaller

80

-crit

separate

81

-cyte

cell

82

-cytosis

condition of cells

83

-dilation

dilate, make larger

84

-ectasis

dilation

85

-emia

blood

86

-penia

deficiency

87

-phage

cell that destroys

88

-poiesis

formation

89

-poietin

formation

90

-spasm

sudden contraction or spasm

91

-stasis

stoppage

92

angiectasis

dilation of a vessel

93

angiography

process of recording blood vessels using x-ray

94

vasculoplasty

surgical repair of a vessel

95

vascular

pertaining to a vessel

96

aortostenosis

narrowing of the aorta

97

arteriole

small arteries

98

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

99

endoarterectomy

surgical removal of the inner lining of the artery

100

atherosclerosis

hardening of the arteries by an accumulation of fatty plaque on the inner arterial walls

101

interatrial

pertaining to the area between the atrium

102

cardiology

study of the heart including diseases and treatment

103

cardiologist

specialist in the study of the heart

104

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

105

cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

106

myocardial

pertaining to the heart muscle

107

pericarditis

inflammation around the heart

108

hyperchromia

excessive pigmentation of the blood

109

coronary arteries

pertaining to the arteries that supply the heart with blood (sit on top of the heart like a crown)

110

erythrocyte

red blood cell

111

hemolysis

breakdown of blood

112

hematologist

specialist in the diseases of the blood

113

hematology

study of the blood and blood disorders

114

leukocyte

white blood cell

115

myelogenous

produced by bone marrow

116

arrhythmia

deviation from the normal heart rhythm

117

thrombocyte

clotting cell

118

thrombolysis

breakdown of a clot

119

thrombosis

abnormal condition of clot formation

120

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a valve

121

interventricular

pertaining to the area between the ventricles

122

hemocytoblast

immature blood cell

123

lymphoblast

immature lymphocyte

124

bradycardia

condition of slow heart rate

125

hematocrit

lab test that separates the blood into its parts

126

leukocytosis

marked increase in the number of white blood cells

127

anemia

lack of red blood cells

128

erythremia

abnormal increase in the number of red cells

129

leukemia

increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood. Considered a form of cancer.

130

erythrocytopenia

decrease in the number of red blood cells

131

leukocytopenia

decrease in the number of white blood cells

132

thrombocytopenia

decrease in the number of clotting cells

133

pancytopenia

decrease in the number of all blood cells

134

erythropoiesis

production of red blood cells

135

hematopoiesis

production of blood cells

136

hemostasis

stoppage of blood

137

tachycardia

condition of fast heart rate