Unit Four: The Romantic Period Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit Four: The Romantic Period Deck (31):
1

dates

ca 1825 - ca 1900

2

representative composers

Franz Schubert, Frederic Chopin, Hector Berlioz, Giacomo Puccini

3

musical styles

emphasis on creative imagination, personal expression, and expression of emotions

4

genres cultivated

Lieder (Erlkonig), programmatic music (Berlioz) ??

5

social and historical context of music in society

the general public became even more involved in music, with composers writing works aimed at large public audiences (rather than just for their patrons), thus works became more dazzling and dramatic.

6

patronage of the arts

aristocratic patronage was much smaller than it had been, and church patronage almost completely disappeared

7

musical centre

Paris

8

characteristics

EXPRESSIVE (chromatic) HARMONY, EMOTIONALISM, VIRTUOSITY, PROGRAMMATIC, nationalism, exoticism, wide dynamic ranges, folk elements, expanded orchestra, lyrical melody, rubato

9

romanticism

a reaction against classicism, with an emphasis on creative imagination and expression of emotions. (Berlioz)

10

exoticism

fascination with foreign lands and cultures, evoked through melody, rhythm, harmony, and orchestration (Madama Butterfly)

11

nationalism

patriotism expressed through music, through the influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, and historical events (Erlkonig)

12

program music

instrumental music with extra-musical associations. A descriptive title identifies the connection. Some works include a written text or "program" provided by composer (Spring) (Berlioz)

13

rubato

Italian for "robbed time". Rhythmic flexibility. An expressive device used for interpreting music.

14

art song

the musical setting of a poem, for solo voice (generally with piano accompaniment) (Erlkonig, op. 1, D 328)

15

Lied (pl. Lieder)

an art song of a German poem (Erlkonig, op. 1, D 328)

16

durchkomponiert

(through-composed) a song structure that avoids repetition of entire sections of the music. As a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text (Erlkonig, op. 1, D 328)

17

polonaise

a stately Polish dance in triple meter transformed by Chopin into a virtuosic piano composition. Often proud and majestic in character, and includes characteristic rhythmic figures. (Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53)

18

chromaticism

from Greek "khroma" for colour. An extensive use of notes outside the prevailing key signature, increasingly used for heightened expression in 19th-century music. (Polonaise in A flat Major, op. 53)

19

program symphony

a multi-movement orchestral work modelled after 18th-century symphony with programmatic elements. Includes a descriptive title, and accompanying text often outlines the program. (Berlioz)

20

idee fixe

French for "fixed idea". Devised by Berlioz, was a recurring theme which undergoes transformation, and serves as a unifying thread in a multi-movement composition. (Berlioz: "the beloved")

21

ophicleide

a brass instrument, now obsolete. Predecessor of the tuba. (Berlioz)

22

portamento

Italian for "carrying". A technique of sliding smoothly from one note to the next. Originally a vocal technique, was adapted by Berlioz as a novel instrumental technique. (Berlioz)

23

col legno

Italian for "with the wood". A novel string effect invented by Berlioz, where players tap strings with the wooden parts of their bows. (Berlioz)

24

cloches

French for "bells". A pitched percussion instrument which emits a ringing sound when struck. (Berlioz)

25

Dies irae

Latin for "day of wrath". A monophonic chant melody dating from the late Middle Ages, drawn from Roman Catholic requiem (Mass for the Dead). 19th-century audiences would have associated the tune with funeral services. (Berlioz)

26

opera

Created in Italy around 1600, is drama that is sung. Combines vocal and instrumental music with drama, visual arts, and often dance. Components include recitative, arias, ensembles, and choruses. (Madama Butterfly)

27

prelude (in opera)

an orchestral work, serving as an introduction to an opera. Used form mid-19th century in place of traditional overture. No prescribed form, but often includes themes to be heard later in the opera (Madama Butterfly, Prelude to Act I)

28

verisimo

Italian for "realism". Opera style popular in Italy in 1890s-early 1900s. Story lines often project a gritty realism which usually culminates in a violent ending. Puccini was the master of this style (Madama Butterfly)

29

pentatonic scale

a scale consisting of 5 different pitches, easily rendered by playing the 5 black keys on the piano. Common to the folk music of many European and Asian cultures. ('Un bel di vedremo' from Madama Butterfly)

30

whole-tone scale

a non-traditional scale employed by composers of the late 19th and 20th centuries. Consists of 6 different pitches, each spaced a WS apart (Madama Butterfly)

31

aria

Italian for "air". A solo heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata. Highly emotional, often virtuosic, and may have lyrical or dramatic character. ('Un bel di vedremo' from Madama Butterfly)