Unit Two: The Baroque Period Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit Two: The Baroque Period Deck (41):
1

dates

ca 1600 - ca 1750 (1600 = birth of opera, 1750 = death of Bach)

2

composers

Antonio Vivaldi, J.S. Bach, Frideric Handel

3

general musical styles

the major-minor system, instrumental music became as important as vocal, ornate/opulent/grandiose

4

genres cultivated (with examples)

opera (Vivaldi Griselda), concertos (The Four Seasons), oratorios (Messiah), cantatas (Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 (Heart and Mouth and Deed and Life)), sonatas (Handel Trio Sonata in B minor)

5

social and historical context of music in society

music was still very important in religion, but expanded to include secular settings.

6

patronage of the arts

an essential for 18th-century musicians. Musicians relied on the generous support of patrons (aristocracy, church, and state). Musicians were paid monetarily, and often also with security, lodging, and opportunities for artistic development.

7

centre of musical activity

Italy

8

Baroque

from Portuguese "barocco", meaning irregularly shapped pearl. Originally derogatory of it's excessive ornateness. Now applied to art of the 17th and early 18th centuries.

9

figured bass

a type of musical shorthand developed in this era. numbers are placed below the bass line to show harmonic progression. Provided a structure for guided improv, which was "realized" by the basso continuo. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)

10

basso continuo

a Baroque performing practice that provides harmonic framework. 2 performers: one playing the notated bass line, one realizing the harmonies indicated by the figured bass. Harmonies are usually played on harpsichord or organ. ("There were shepherds", Messiah, the recitative secco parts)

11

equal temperament

a method of tuning keyboard instruments in which all semitones within the octave are divided equally (creating enharmonic equivalents). Allows music to be performed "in tune" in all keys.

12

terraced dynamics

Baroque practice of changing dynamics abruptly, resulting in stark contrast rather than gradual change ("Glory to God", Messiah, 'peace on earth')

13

the "Affections"

a baroque philosophy (inspired by Greco-Romans) referring to emotional states of the soul. In Baroque music, a single affection is usually projected through an entire composition or mvmt. Was a reaction against the complex polyphony of Renaissance music.

14

word painting

musical pictoralization, where music mirrors the literal meaning of the words. Achieved through melody, rhythm, or harmony. ("Glory to God", Messiah, 'peace on earth')

15

idiomatic writing

the unique technical capabilities of an instrument are highlighted.

16

binary form

two-part form (AB). A generally ends with open cadence. Often used in dances/keyboard pieces. (Prelude of P&F No. 21 in B flat Major)

17

ternary form

three-part form (ABA). B generally creates contrast in key/material. Often used in arias. ("Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)

18

ritornello form

a structure employed in 1st/3rd mvmts of the Baroque concerto. The opening passage (ritornello) is restated throughout the work (Vivaldi's Spring)

19

ripieno

Italian for "full" or "complete". A term used to denote the use of the full orchestra in the Baroque concerto. (Vivaldi's Spring)

20

ostinato

Italian for "obstinate". A rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated for an extended period (Vivaldi's Spring)

21

drone

a sustained bass note that provides a rudimentary harmonic foundation, common in folk music. (Vivaldi's Spring)

22

solo concerto

popular instrumental genre of the Baroque era for soloist and orchestra. Generally 3 movements (fast-slow-fast), and frequently employed ritornello form. Intended to showcase soloist's virtuosity.

23

prelude

a short keyboard work in improvisatory style, often paired with a fugue (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

24

fugue

a highly structured, imitative contrapuntal composition, where a single theme or subject prevails (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

25

subject

the initial statement of the main theme of a fugue; in the tonic key (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

26

answer

the second statement of the main theme of a fugue, usually in the dominant key (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

27

real answer

an exact transposition of the subject (The Well-Tempered Clavier)

28

tonal answer

a statement of the subject in which 1+ intervals is adjusted to accommodate the harmony. (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

29

countersubject

a recurring counter-melody, which accompanies entries of the subject and answer (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

30

episode

a passage within a fugue in which neither subject nor answer is present, frequently sequential (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

31

stretto

from the Italian "stringere", meaning to tighten. Overlapping subject entries in close succession. (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

32

pedal point

a sustained note over which harmonies change (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)

33

tierce de Picardie

a work in a minor key ends in the tonic major (raised 3rd) (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major nope)

34

oratorio

a large-scale work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. Has a serious subject, generally based on Biblical texts. Consists of recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses (Messiah)

35

French overture

a Baroque orchestral genre first developed at court of Louis XIV by Lully. Generally in two parts: 1st: slow tempo, homophonic texture, features dotted figures. 2nd: fast tempo, imitative texture (Overture (Sinfony) of Messiah)

36

recitativo secco

Italian for "dry recitative". A speech-like, declamatory style of singing. Supported only by continuo. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)

37

recitativo accompagnato

Italian for "accompanied recitative". A speech-like, declamatory style of singing. Supported by instrumental ensemble or orchestra, allowing for a greater connection with the text. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)

38

da capo aria

the most common song type in Baroque opera and oratorio. Ternary form. In performance, the return of A is generally ornamented. ("Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)

39

melisma

a group of notes sung on a single syllable or vowel. Demonstrates vocal virtuosity and often serves to highlight key words ('Rejoice' of "Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)

40

libretto

the text of an opera/oratorio/cantata. Usually librettist /= composer

41

homorhythmic texture

all voices sing the same rhythm, resulting in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic). Delivers the text with clarity and emphasis. (Hallelujah chorus, Messiah)