Flashcards in Unit Two: The Baroque Period Deck (41):
ca 1600 - ca 1750 (1600 = birth of opera, 1750 = death of Bach)
Antonio Vivaldi, J.S. Bach, Frideric Handel
general musical styles
the major-minor system, instrumental music became as important as vocal, ornate/opulent/grandiose
genres cultivated (with examples)
opera (Vivaldi Griselda), concertos (The Four Seasons), oratorios (Messiah), cantatas (Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 (Heart and Mouth and Deed and Life)), sonatas (Handel Trio Sonata in B minor)
social and historical context of music in society
music was still very important in religion, but expanded to include secular settings.
patronage of the arts
an essential for 18th-century musicians. Musicians relied on the generous support of patrons (aristocracy, church, and state). Musicians were paid monetarily, and often also with security, lodging, and opportunities for artistic development.
centre of musical activity
from Portuguese "barocco", meaning irregularly shapped pearl. Originally derogatory of it's excessive ornateness. Now applied to art of the 17th and early 18th centuries.
a type of musical shorthand developed in this era. numbers are placed below the bass line to show harmonic progression. Provided a structure for guided improv, which was "realized" by the basso continuo. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)
a Baroque performing practice that provides harmonic framework. 2 performers: one playing the notated bass line, one realizing the harmonies indicated by the figured bass. Harmonies are usually played on harpsichord or organ. ("There were shepherds", Messiah, the recitative secco parts)
a method of tuning keyboard instruments in which all semitones within the octave are divided equally (creating enharmonic equivalents). Allows music to be performed "in tune" in all keys.
Baroque practice of changing dynamics abruptly, resulting in stark contrast rather than gradual change ("Glory to God", Messiah, 'peace on earth')
a baroque philosophy (inspired by Greco-Romans) referring to emotional states of the soul. In Baroque music, a single affection is usually projected through an entire composition or mvmt. Was a reaction against the complex polyphony of Renaissance music.
musical pictoralization, where music mirrors the literal meaning of the words. Achieved through melody, rhythm, or harmony. ("Glory to God", Messiah, 'peace on earth')
the unique technical capabilities of an instrument are highlighted.
two-part form (AB). A generally ends with open cadence. Often used in dances/keyboard pieces. (Prelude of P&F No. 21 in B flat Major)
three-part form (ABA). B generally creates contrast in key/material. Often used in arias. ("Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)
a structure employed in 1st/3rd mvmts of the Baroque concerto. The opening passage (ritornello) is restated throughout the work (Vivaldi's Spring)
Italian for "full" or "complete". A term used to denote the use of the full orchestra in the Baroque concerto. (Vivaldi's Spring)
Italian for "obstinate". A rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated for an extended period (Vivaldi's Spring)
a sustained bass note that provides a rudimentary harmonic foundation, common in folk music. (Vivaldi's Spring)
popular instrumental genre of the Baroque era for soloist and orchestra. Generally 3 movements (fast-slow-fast), and frequently employed ritornello form. Intended to showcase soloist's virtuosity.
a short keyboard work in improvisatory style, often paired with a fugue (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
a highly structured, imitative contrapuntal composition, where a single theme or subject prevails (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
the initial statement of the main theme of a fugue; in the tonic key (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
the second statement of the main theme of a fugue, usually in the dominant key (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
an exact transposition of the subject (The Well-Tempered Clavier)
a statement of the subject in which 1+ intervals is adjusted to accommodate the harmony. (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
a recurring counter-melody, which accompanies entries of the subject and answer (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
a passage within a fugue in which neither subject nor answer is present, frequently sequential (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
from the Italian "stringere", meaning to tighten. Overlapping subject entries in close succession. (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
a sustained note over which harmonies change (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major)
tierce de Picardie
a work in a minor key ends in the tonic major (raised 3rd) (P&F no. 21 in B flat Major nope)
a large-scale work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. Has a serious subject, generally based on Biblical texts. Consists of recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses (Messiah)
a Baroque orchestral genre first developed at court of Louis XIV by Lully. Generally in two parts: 1st: slow tempo, homophonic texture, features dotted figures. 2nd: fast tempo, imitative texture (Overture (Sinfony) of Messiah)
Italian for "dry recitative". A speech-like, declamatory style of singing. Supported only by continuo. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)
Italian for "accompanied recitative". A speech-like, declamatory style of singing. Supported by instrumental ensemble or orchestra, allowing for a greater connection with the text. ("There were shepherds", Messiah)
da capo aria
the most common song type in Baroque opera and oratorio. Ternary form. In performance, the return of A is generally ornamented. ("Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)
a group of notes sung on a single syllable or vowel. Demonstrates vocal virtuosity and often serves to highlight key words ('Rejoice' of "Rejoice Greatly", Messiah)
the text of an opera/oratorio/cantata. Usually librettist /= composer