Flashcards in Unit Three: The Classical Period Deck (28):
ca 1750 - ca 1825
Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig Van Beethoven
general musical styles
simplicity and clean style (like the rediscovered Greco-Roman art). Emphasized symmetry, balance, and proportion.
genres cultivated (with examples)
social and historical context of music in society
the decrease of patronage allowed the growth of the public concert.
patronage of the arts
dynamic social and political changes (caused the French Revolution!) affected the composer-patron relationship. It was now possible to survive without a patron (like Beethoven).
centre of musical activity
development of sonata form
the highest level of excellence, possessing enduring value or timeless quality. Refers to the cultures of Ancient Rome/Greece, and the art of the late 18th-century. Emphasized symmetry, balance, and proportion
the musical style forged by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and their contemporaries.
(pure music) music without extra-musical associations; generic titles reflecting tempos, genres, or forms
the multi-movement structure that emerged in the Classical Era. It is demonstrated in the symphony, sonata, or concerto. (ex. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik K525)
menuet and trio
menuet: a stylized dance of French origin developed in the Baroque period, in triple meter, and with a graceful, elegant character. Trio = a contrasting middle section. Ternary form (ABA) (ex. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, mvmt 3)
classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle. Section A heard 3+ times in the tonic key, with alternating sections creating contrast. ABACA or ABACABA (ex. Eine Kleine, mvmt 2, ABACA Coda)
(sonata-allegro form) formal structure often used in the 1st movement of sonata cycle. Consists of Exposition (statement of 2+ contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return). (ex. Eine Kleine mvmt 1)
music for small ensemble (2-10 players), with 1 player per part. Usually played without a conductor.
composed of violin 1, 2, viola, and cello, was the most important chamber-music genre of the era. Usually fast-slow-moderately fast-fast (4 mvmts), and mvmt 1 is usually sonata form. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")
the first main section of sonata form. Two contrasting themes are stated: the first in the tonic, the second in a contrasting key (often dominant / relative major). (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")
the second main section of sonata form. Themes from the exposition are manipulated through fragmentation, sequential treatment, or changes to orchestration. Modulations and increased harmonic tension. New themes may also be introduced. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")
the third main section of sonata form. 1st and 2nd themes are both restated in the tonic. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")
Latin for "tail" (cauda). A concluding section reaffirming the tonic key. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")
rapidly ascending melody outlining an arpeggio, often used as a dramatic opening motive in Classical-era works (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)
rounded binary form
two-part musical form ( A :||: B + A :|| ). Music from A returns in B. (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)
multi-movement orchestral genre for small orchestra or chamber ensemble. Was popular in the Classical era, often performed in aristocratic social settings and outdoor events. (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)
material heard in one movement recurs in later movements. Creates structural unity. (Symphony No. 5, op. 67)
short melodic or rhythmic idea, the smallest unit used to form a melody or theme (Symphony No. 5, op. 67)
scherzo and trio
Italian for "jest" or "joke". Beethoven substituted the scherzo in place of the menuet as the 3rd mvmt in the sonata cycle. also in triple meter, but generally more dramatic than the elegant menuet. can be humorous or ironic (Symphony No. 5, op. 67, mvmt 3)