Unit Three: The Classical Period Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit Three: The Classical Period Deck (28):
1

dates

ca 1750 - ca 1825

2

composers

Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig Van Beethoven

3

general musical styles

simplicity and clean style (like the rediscovered Greco-Roman art). Emphasized symmetry, balance, and proportion.

4

genres cultivated (with examples)

?

5

social and historical context of music in society

the decrease of patronage allowed the growth of the public concert.

6

patronage of the arts

dynamic social and political changes (caused the French Revolution!) affected the composer-patron relationship. It was now possible to survive without a patron (like Beethoven).

7

centre of musical activity

Vienna, Austria

8

defining achievement

development of sonata form

9

classicism

the highest level of excellence, possessing enduring value or timeless quality. Refers to the cultures of Ancient Rome/Greece, and the art of the late 18th-century. Emphasized symmetry, balance, and proportion

10

Viennese school

the musical style forged by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and their contemporaries.

11

absolute music

(pure music) music without extra-musical associations; generic titles reflecting tempos, genres, or forms

12

sonata cycle

the multi-movement structure that emerged in the Classical Era. It is demonstrated in the symphony, sonata, or concerto. (ex. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik K525)

13

menuet and trio

menuet: a stylized dance of French origin developed in the Baroque period, in triple meter, and with a graceful, elegant character. Trio = a contrasting middle section. Ternary form (ABA) (ex. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, mvmt 3)

14

rondo form

classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle. Section A heard 3+ times in the tonic key, with alternating sections creating contrast. ABACA or ABACABA (ex. Eine Kleine, mvmt 2, ABACA Coda)

15

sonata form

(sonata-allegro form) formal structure often used in the 1st movement of sonata cycle. Consists of Exposition (statement of 2+ contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return). (ex. Eine Kleine mvmt 1)

16

chamber music

music for small ensemble (2-10 players), with 1 player per part. Usually played without a conductor.

17

string quartet

composed of violin 1, 2, viola, and cello, was the most important chamber-music genre of the era. Usually fast-slow-moderately fast-fast (4 mvmts), and mvmt 1 is usually sonata form. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")

18

exposition

the first main section of sonata form. Two contrasting themes are stated: the first in the tonic, the second in a contrasting key (often dominant / relative major). (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")

19

development

the second main section of sonata form. Themes from the exposition are manipulated through fragmentation, sequential treatment, or changes to orchestration. Modulations and increased harmonic tension. New themes may also be introduced. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")

20

recapitulation

the third main section of sonata form. 1st and 2nd themes are both restated in the tonic. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")

21

coda

Latin for "tail" (cauda). A concluding section reaffirming the tonic key. (Haydn String Quartet, op 76, no 2 "Quinten")

22

rocket theme

rapidly ascending melody outlining an arpeggio, often used as a dramatic opening motive in Classical-era works (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)

23

rounded binary form

two-part musical form ( A :||: B + A :|| ). Music from A returns in B. (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)

24

serenade

multi-movement orchestral genre for small orchestra or chamber ensemble. Was popular in the Classical era, often performed in aristocratic social settings and outdoor events. (Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K525)

25

cyclical structure

material heard in one movement recurs in later movements. Creates structural unity. (Symphony No. 5, op. 67)

26

motive

short melodic or rhythmic idea, the smallest unit used to form a melody or theme (Symphony No. 5, op. 67)

27

scherzo and trio

Italian for "jest" or "joke". Beethoven substituted the scherzo in place of the menuet as the 3rd mvmt in the sonata cycle. also in triple meter, but generally more dramatic than the elegant menuet. can be humorous or ironic (Symphony No. 5, op. 67, mvmt 3)

28

theme and variations

a melody is stated and then undergoes a series of transformations (of melody, rhythm, orchestration, etc.). Often used in slow movement of sonata cycle. (Symphony No. 5, op. 67, mvmt 2)