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Flashcards in Upper limb (arm) Deck (12)
1

What are the features of the mid-humeral shaft?

- Crests of the greater and lesser tuberosities
- Deltoid tuberosity
- Radial groove

2

What are the features of the distal humerus?

- Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges
- Medial and lateral epicondyles.
- Trochlea
- Capitulum
- Coronoid fossa
- Olecranon fossa

3

What are the relations of the brachial artery?

- The brachial artery is in the anterior compartment of the arm.
- It lies initially on the medial aspects of the arm but gradually moves laterally as it descends, entering into the elbow between the medial and lateral epicondyles.
- Lies in a groove along medial borders of biceps.

4

What are the relations of the profunda brachii artery?

- The profunda brachii artery is closely associated with the radial nerve.
- It passes into the posterior compartment of the arm through the triangular interval with the nerve.
- It then travels in the radial groove of the humerus with the nerve.
- It bifurcates into its 2 terminal branches midway along the arms.

5

What are the terminal branches of the profunda brachii artery?

- Middle collateral artery
- Radial collateral artery

6

What are the relations of the musculocutaneous nerve?

- Enters the anterior compartment of the arm through the coracobrachialis.
- Travels obliquely (medial to lateral) down the arm between brachialis and biceps brachii.
- Exits the arm lateral to the biceps tendon.

7

What is the terminal branch of the musculocutaneous nerve?

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm

8

What are the relations of the median nerve?

- Enters the anterior compartment of the arm anterior to the inferior border of teres major.
- Associated with the the brachial artery along its course.
- Proximally, the nerve is located lateral to the artery.
- Midway, the nerve crosses the artery to become medial to it.
- Lies in a groove on the medial border of biceps brachii.

9

What are the relations of the ulnar nerve?

- The ulnar nerve enters the anterior compartment of the arm lateral to the brachial artery.
- Half way along the arm, it pierces the medial intermuscular septum to enter the posterior compartment.
- It passes posterior to the medial epicondyle, in a groove between it and the olecranon.
- It enters the anterior compartments of the forearm between the 2 heads of flexor carpi ulnaris.

10

What are the branches of the brachial artery?

- Profunda brachii artery
- Nutrient branches to the humerus
- Superior ulnar collateral artery
- Inferior ulnar collateral artery
- Muscular branches

11

What are the veins of the arm?

- Basilic vein: Runs on the medial side of the arm. Pierces deep fascia mid-way along the arm to join venae comitantes of brachial artery.
- Cephalic vein: Runs on the lateral side of the arm. Pierces clavipectoral of anterior axillary wall to join axillary artery.

12

What are the relations of the radial nerve?

- The radial nerve passes into the posterior compartment of the arm through the triangular interval with the profunda brachii artery.
- It passes obliquely (medial to lateral) in the radial groove.
- It pierces the lateral intermuscular 2/3 along the arm to pass into the anterior compartment.
- It passes into the forearm anterior to the lateral epicondyle between brachioradialis and brachialis.