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Functional Architecture of the Body > Principles of the nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of the nervous system Deck (13)

What are the types of glial cells?

- Satellite glia: Found in the dorsal root ganglia of sensory neurones and sympathetic ganglia (PNS).
- Astrocytes: Found in the CNS. Helps to form the BBB and removes NTs from synapses.
- Microglia: Found in the CNS. Derived from monocytes and has immune functions.
- Oligodendrocytes: Found in CNS. Myelinates CNS neurones.
- Schwann cells: Found in PNS. Myelinates PNS neurones.


Where does the spinal cord begin?



What are the components of the dorsal spinal roots?

Sensory nerves.


What are the components of the ventral spinal roots?

Motor nerves.


What are the relations between spinal nerves and their vertebral body?

- C1-7 exits above their corresponding vertebral body.
- C8 exits below C7 vertebrae.
- T1-S5 exit below their corresponding vertebral body.


Where does the spinal cord end?

L1 (conus medullaris)


What is the Filum terminale?

Filament anchoring spinal cord to the caudal end of dural sac.


How do the spina nerve travel below L1?

In the cauda equina.


What is the clinical significance of the end of the spinal cord?

Lumbar punctures are performed at level L4.


What are the layers of the spinal meninges?

- Pia mater (inner)
- Arachnoid mater (middle)
- Dura mata (outer)


What are the major somatic plexuses in the body?

1. Cervical plexus: Supplies neck (and diaphragm)
2. Brachial plexus: Supplies the upper limb
3. Lumbar plexus: Supplies the anterior and medial compartments of the lower limb
4. Sacral plexus: Supplies the posterior compartments of the lower limb and pelvis
5. Thoracic rami: Forms separate intercostal nerves


What is the significance of the formation of somatic plexuses?

They are all formed from the ventral primary rami of corresponding spinal nerves.


What are the major classes of nervous system disorders?

1. Developmental problems
2. Cell proliferation
3. Traumatic injury
4. Cerebrovascular dysfunction
5. Sensory dysfunction
6. Motor dysfunctions
7. Degenerative diseases