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Flashcards in Pelvis revision Deck (42)
1

What are the anatomical spaces in the female pelvis?

1. Vesicounterine pouch.
2. Rectouterine pouch.

2

What are the anatomical spaces in the male pelvis?

Rectovesical pouch

3

What are the branches of the internal iliac artery?

Parietal branches:
1. Superior/inferior gluteal arteries (buttocks)
2. Obturator artery (inner leg)
3. Internal pudendal arteries (perineum)
Visceral branches:
1. Superior/inferior vesical arteries (bladder)
2. Middle rectal artery
3. Uterine artery (uterus)

4

What is the arterial supply to the bladder?

- Superior/inferior vesical arteries
- Uterine arteries (females)

5

What is the venous drainage of the bladder?

Vesical plexus

6

What is the name of the muscle making up the walls of the bladder?

Detrusor muscle

7

What is the innervation of the bladder?

- Sympathetic: L1-2 (ejaculation, males)
- Parasympathetic: Pelvic splanchnic nerve (S2-4)

8

What is the arterial supply to the rectum?

- Superior rectal artery
- Middle rectal artery

9

At what level does the rectum start?

S3

10

What is the innervation of the rectum?

Sympathetic:
- Pre-ganglionic: L1-2
- Post-ganglionic: Coeliac/hypogastric plexuses
Parasympathetic:
- Pelvic splanchnic nerve (S2-4)

11

What are the openings found in the verumontanum of the prostate?

- Prostatic ducts
- Prostatic utricle
- Ejaculatory duct

12

What is the arterial supply to the prostate?

- Inferior vesical artery
- Middle rectal artery
- Internal pudendal artery

13

What is the venous drainage of the prostate?

Preprostatic plexus

14

What structure does the vas diferens pass on along its path?

- Inguinal canal (superficial/deep ring, in spermatic cord)
- Inferior epigastric vessels (anterior)
- External iliac vessels (posterior)
- Medial umbilical ligament (posterior)
- Obturator neurovascular bundle

15

What is the arterial supply to the vas diferens?

Artery to the vas (branch of superior vesical artery)

16

What is the arterial supply to the seminal vesicles?

Inferior vesical artery

17

What is the innervation of the vas diferens?

- Intrapelvic: Same as bladder.
- Spermatic cord: Same as testes.

18

What are the layers of fascia covering the testes?

- Tunica vaginalis (parietal/visceral)
- Tunica albuginea

19

What is the arterial supply to the testes?

Testicular arteries

20

What is the venous supply to the testes?

Pampiniform plexus (drains into testicular veins)

21

What are the structural components of the uterus?

- Fundus
- Body
- Cornua
- Isthmus
- Cervix
- Internal os
- External os
- Fornix

22

What is the arterial supply to the uterus?

- Uterine arteries
- Branches of ovarian arteries

23

What is the innervation of the uterus?

Sympathetic:
- Pre-ganglionic: T10-L1
- Post-ganglionic: Hypogastic plexuses
Parasympathetic:
- Pelvic splanchnic nerve (S2-4)

24

What are the ligaments of the uterus?

- Broad ligament (Body of uterus - Parietal peritoneum)
- Round ligament (Junction of uterus/fallopian tube - Labia majora)
- Ligament of the ovary (Junction of uterus/fallopian tube - ovary)
- Pubocervical ligament (pubis - cervix)
- Cardinal ligament (Junction of cervix/vagina - lateral pelvic wall)
- Uterosacral ligament (Isthmus - sacrum)

25

What are the ligaments of the ovaries?

- Ligament of the ovary
- Mesovarium (part of broad ligament)
- Suspensory ligament of the ovary (Pelvis - ovaries)

26

What is the arterial supply to the ovaries?

Ovarian arteries

27

What is the venous drainage of the ovaries?

Ovarian veins

28

What is the innervation of the ovaries?

Sympathetic:
- Pre-ganglionic: T10
- Post-ganglionic: Para-aortic ganglia
Parasympathetic:
- None

29

What are the bones that make up the pelvis?

- Ilium
- Sacrum
- Coccyx
- Pubis
- Ischium

30

What are the origins and insertions of piriformis?

- Origin: Middle 3 pieces of the sacrum
- Insertion: Upper greater trochanter of the femur

31

What is the function of piriformis?

Lateral rotation of extended hip joint

32

What are the origins and insertions of obturator internus?

Origin: Membrane and margins of obturator foraman.
Insertion: Medial surface of greater trochanter.

33

What are the muscles that make up levator ani?

- Puborectalis
- Pubococcygeus (puboprostaticus/vaginalis, puboanalis)
- Iliococcygeus

34

What are the origins and insertions of puborectalis?

- Origin: Posterior surface of pubis
- Insertion: None (sling)

35

What are the origins and insertions of pubococcygeus?

- Origin: Posterior surface of pubis
- Insertion: Anococcygeal raphé

36

What are the origins and insertions of iliococcygeus?

- Origin: White line (obturator internus)
- Insertion: Anococcygeal raphé

37

What are the contents of the deep perineal pouch?

- Membranous urethra
- External urethral sphinctrer
- Bulbourethral glands
- Deep transverse perineal muscle

38

What are the parts of the penis?

- Roots
- Body
- Glans

39

What are the attachments of the roots of the penis?

- Ischiopubic rami (by the crura)
- Pubic symphysis (by the suspensory ligaments)

40

What are the parts of the urethra?

- Prostatic urethra
- Membranous urethra
- Penile urethra

41

What are the major plexuses in the perineum?

- Sacral plexus (L5-S4)
- Coccygeal plexus (S4-S5)

42

What are the main branches of pudendal nerve (S2-4)?

Inferior rectal nerve:
- External anal sphincter
- Perianal skin
- Levator ani
Perineal nerve:
- Scrotal branches: Scrotum
- Muscular branches: Transverse perineal muscles, ischiocavernosus, bulbospongeosus, external urethral sphinctre, external anal sphincter, levator ani.
- Nerve to bulb: Bulb of penis
Dorsal nerve of the penis:
- Skin of penis
- Glans