Signalling molecules in embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Signalling molecules in embryology Deck (18)
1

What factors are responsible for the differentiation of the morula?

Continued expression of nanog and Oct4 in inner cell mass but not trophoblast.

2

What factors are responsible for the ingression of epiblast cells?

Down-regulation of E-cadherin by Fgf8.

3

What factors are responsible for the formation of the neural plate?

Inhibition of BMF4 by chordin, noggin, follistatin secretion by notochord

4

What factors are responsible for the migration of neural crest cells?

- Epithelial-to-mesenchyme transformation: Snail, FOXD3.

- Migration: Slug.

5

What factors are responsible for somitogenesis?

Segmentation clock: Fgf8 and retinoic acid create the determination wave front while cycling genes determine segmentation. 

6

What factors are responsible for sclerotome formation?

SHH and noggin secretion by the notochord and floor plate of neural tube.

7

What factors are responsible for the dermamyotome formation?

Activation of WNT by PAX3.

8

What factors are responsible for formation of the anterior visceral endoderm (head)?

- OTX2, LIM1, HESX1.

- Cerebus, lefty.

9

What factors maintain the prinitive streak?

- Nodal.

10

What factors are responsible for the differentiation of the mesoderm?

BMP4, Fgf.

11

What factors maintain the primitive node?

HNF-3β

12

What factors are responsible for leftsidedness?

- Fgf8 induced nodal.

- Lefty-2.

13

What factors are responsible for ventricular septation?

- TGF-β

- BMP-2A

14

What factor is responsible for MET in AV valve formation?

NOTCH1

15

What factors are responible for the differentiation of the gut tube?

SOX2: Oesophagus & stomach

PDX1: Duodenum

CDXC: Small intestine

CDXA: Large intestine & rectum

16

What factors are involved in liver formation?

- FGF2 from cardiac mesoderm inhibits inhibition of hepatogenesis

- HNF 3&4 aids endoderm to hepatocyte differentiation

17

What factors are involved in pancreas formation?

- Ventral pancreatic bud: FGF2 and ACTIVIN

- Dorsal pancreatic bud: PDX1

18

What factors are involved in induction for kidney formation?

- MM secretes GDNF and HGF and induces UB branching

- UB secretes FGF2 and BMP7 to induce MM development