Flashcards in Upper limb (forearm) Deck (24)
What are the joints of the elbow joint?
- Humeroulnar joint: Articulation between the humerus (trochlea) and the ulna (trochlear notch).
- Humeroradial joint: Articulation between the humerus (capitulum) and radius (head).
- Proximal radioulnar joint: Articulation between the radius (head) and ulna (radial notch).
What are the movements associated with the elbow joint?
- Flexion/extension: Humeroradial and humeroulnar joints.
- Pronation/supination: Proximal radioulnar joint.
What are the ligaments associated with the elbow joint?
- Medial collateral ligament: Attaches proximally to the medial epicondyle and distally to proximal end of the ulna
- Lateral collateral ligament: Attaches proximally to the lateral epicondyle and distally to the head of ulna (blends with annular ligament).
- Annular ligament: Attaches to the margins of the radial notch and blends with the lateral collateral ligament.
What are the relationships of the elbow joint?
- Anterior: Cubital fossa
- Posteromedial: Ulnar nerve
- Anterolateral: Radial nerve
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
- Superior: Line between medial and lateral epicondyles.
- Lateral: Medial border of brachioradialis.
- Medial: Lateral border of pronator teres.
- Roof: Skin of the elbow and bicipital aponeurosis.
- Floor: Brachilais and supinator.
What are the contents of the cubital fossa?
Lateral to medial:
- Tendon of biceps brachii
- Brachial artery
- Median nerve
(Median cubital vein runs along the roof of the fossa)
What are the features of the radius?
- Head (disc-shaped)
- Radial tuberosity
- Oblique line
- Styloid process (of radius)
- Lister's tubercle (posterior)
- Grooves for extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum/extensor indicis (from medial to lateral)
- Facet of articulation with scaphoid
- Facet of articulation with lunate
What are the features of the ulna?
- Trochlear notch
- Coronoid process
- Ulnar tuberosity
- radial notch
- Styloid process (of ulna)
What is the common flexor origin (CFO)?
Anterior aspects of the medial epicondyle
What is the order of deep muscles attached to the posterior aspects of the ulna?
- Abductor pollicis longus
- Extensor pollicis longus
- Entensor indicis
Which muscle is closely associated with Lister's tubercle of the the radius?
Extensor pollicis longus
What are the relations of the radial artery?
- Proximally, the radial artery lies deep to brachioradialis, medial to the radial nerve.
- Distally, the artery lies medial to the brachioradialis tendon and lateral to the FCR tendon.
What are the branches of the radial artery?
- Radial recurrent branch
- Superficial palmer branch
What are the relations of the ulnar artery?
- The ulnar artery enters the forearm deep to pronator teres.
- It then travels between FCU/FDS and FDP.
- It lies lateral to the ulnar nerve.
- It enters the wrist deep to the tendon of FCU.
What are the branches of the ulnar artery?
- Ulnar recurrent artery (anterior/posterior branches)
- Common interosseus artery
What are the branches of the common interosseus artery?
- Anterior interosseus artery: Supplies deep muscles of the anterior compartment and muscles of the posterior compartment.
- Posterior interosseus artery: Supplies muscles of the posterior compartment.
What are the relations of the median nerve?
- The median nerve enters the cubital fossa between the 2 head of pronator teres.
- In the cubital fossa, the nerve lies medial to the brachial artery.
- It passes into the forearm between the 2 heads of FDS and travels through the forearm deep to it.
- Distally, it becomes lateral to the muscle and more superficial, lying between the heads of palmaris longus and FCR.
What are the branches of the median nerve?
- Anterior interosseus nerve: Originates between the heads of pronator teres and travels with anterior interosseus artery. It supplies the deep muscles of the anterior compartment (aside from medial aspects of FDP).
- Palmer branch: Originates just proximal to the flexor retinaculum to supply the skin of the central palm.
What are the relations of the ulnar nerve?
- The ulnar nerve enters the forearm by passing between the 2 heads of FCU.
- It travels on the medial side of the forearm between FDS/FCU and FDP.
- It lies medial to the ulnar artery.
What are the branches of the ulnar nerve?
- Muscular branches.
- Palmer branch: Originates in the middle forearm and innervates skin of medial palm.
- Dorsal branch: Originates in the distal forearm and innervates the skin of the posteromedial aspects of the hand.
What are the relations of the radial nerve ?
- The radial nerve enters the forearm deep to brachioradialis and immediately bifurcates into superficial and deep branches.
What are the branches of the radial nerve?
- Deep branches: Passes into the posterior compartment of the forearm between the 2 heads of supinator, whereby it becomes the posterior interosseus nerve and supplies muscles of the posterior compartment.
- Superficial branches: Passes on the lateral aspect of the anterior forearm, lateral to the radial nerve. 2/3 along the forearm, it winds around the lateral aspects of the forearm to enter the posterior compartment of the forearm. It innervates the skin on the posterolateral aspects of the hand.
Which muscles in the posterior compartment of the arm are not innervated by the posterior interosseus nerve?
- Extensor carpi radialis longus