What are the major differences between the upper and lower limb?
1. Rotation of lower limb in relation to anatomical position allows foot to be plantigrade.
2. Pelvic girdle is fixed while pectoral girdle is mobile.
3. There is movement between radius and ulna but tibia and fibula are fixed.
4. There is substantial independent movement of the fingers but toe movement is limited.
What are the functions of the vertebral column?
1. Protects spinal cord and nerves
2. Supports weight of body above pelvis
3. Provides axis for body ad pivot for head rotation
4. Important role in posture and locomotion
5. Acts as shock absorber
What is the primary curvature of spine?
Kyphosis: Concave anteriorly (present in thoracic and sacral region)
What are the secondary curvatures of the spine?
Lordosis: Concave posteriorly:
- Cervical region supports biocular vision
- Lumbar region supports upright posture
What are the structural features of a vertebrae?
- Body (support)
- Neural arch (protection of spinal cord)
What are the structural features of the neural arch?
- Pedicle (lateral)
- Lamina (posterior)
- Transverse processes
- Spinous process
- Superior aticulating facets
- Inferior articulating facets
What type of joints are formed by the intervertebral discs?
Secondary cartilaginous joints
What is the structure of an intervertebral disc?
- The centre if the disc consists of the nucleus propulsus (remnant of the notochord).
- Nucleus is surrounded by concentric rings of firocartilage forming the anulus fibrosis.
- The intervertebral discs are connected to their corresponding cartilages via the anterior/posterior longitudinal ligaments.
What is the function of the nucleus pulposus?
Acts as shock absorber
What is a prolapsed disc?
Nucleus pulposus protrudes through a weakened anulus fibrosis. This may compress the spinal cord or spinal nerves.
What is the most common form of a prolapsed disc?
- Lower lumbar region
- Posterlateral prolapse
What are the features of a cervical vertebrae?
- Large triangular vertebral foraman
- Small body
- Bifid spine
- Transverse process with foraman transversarium
- Oblique articular facet
What are the features of a thoracic vertebrae?
- Small circular vertebral foraman
- Demifacts on body (for ribs)
- Long spinous process
- Transverse process (with facet for ribs)
- Articular facets on arc for circle
What are the features of a lumbar vertebrae?
- Small triangular vertebral foraman
- Large body
- Thick spinous process
- Large transverse process
- Interlocking articular facets
Where is the centre of gravity located?
3 cm in front of the second sacral vertebrae
What are the natural tendencies of different joints during upright posture?
- Cervical: Flexion
- Thoracic: Flexion
- Lumbar: Extension
- Hip joint: Extension
- Knee joint: Extension
- Ankle joint: Dorsiflexion
What are these tendencies resisted by in the vertebral column?
- Cervical: Erector spinae, ligamentum nuchae
- Thoracic: Erector spinae
- Lumbar: Little action
What are these natural tendencies resisted by in the lower limb?
- Hip joint: Iliofemoral ligament
- Knee: Locking of knee, iliotibial tract
- Ankle: Soleus
What are the postures that minimise energy in upright position?
- Feet apart
- One feet in front of other
What is the significance of the arches of the feet during locomotion?
The more loaded the arches become, the more rigid the feet become. This allows it to act as lever during locomotion.
What are the events that take place when balancing on one leg?
- Gluteus medius and minimus abducts hip towards the side of the leg on the ground.
- Lateral flexion of the vertebral column towards feet on the ground.
- This shifts centre of gravity over the standing leg.
What is the stance phase?
When the foot in question is on the ground.
What is the gait cycle for one foot?
1. Toe off
3. Heel contact
5. Heel off
What is the double stance phase?
- When both feet are on the ground.
- Shortens when pace of walking increases.
- Disappears during running.
Which joints and muscles are involved with standing up?
Hip joint (extension): Gluteus maximus
Knee joint (extension): Quadriceps femoris